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Concluding Document of the Vienna Follow-Up to the Helsinki

The representatives of the participating States of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE), Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, the German Democratic Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, the Holy See, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom, the United States of America and Yugoslavia, met in Vienna from 4 November 1986 to 19 January 1989 in accordance with the provisions of the Final Act relating to the Follow-up to the Conference, as well as on the basis of the other relevant CSCE documents.

The participants were addressed on 4 November 1986 by the Austrian Federal Chancellor.

Opening statements were made by all Heads of Delegations among whom were Ministers and Deputy Ministers of many participating States. Some Ministers of Foreign Affairs addressed the Meeting also at later stages.

The participants were addressed on by a representative of the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Contributions were made by representatives of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) and UNESCO.

Contributions were also made by the following non-participating Mediterranean States: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Libanon, Libya, Morocco, Syria and Tunisia.

The representatives of the participating States reaffirmed their commitment to the CSCE process and underlined its essential role in increasing confidence, in opening up new ways for co-operation, in promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms and thus strengthening international security.

The participating States welcomed the favourable developments in the international situation since the conclusion of the Madrid Meeting in 1983 and expressed their satisfaction that the CSCE process has contributed to these developments. Noting the intensification of political dialogue among them and the important progress in negotiations on military security and disarmament, they agreed that renewed efforts should be undertaken to consolidate these positive trends and to achieve a substantial further improvement of their mutual relations. Accordingly, they reaffirmed their resolve fully to implement, unilaterally, bilaterally and multilaterally, all the provisions of the Final Act and of the other CSCE documents.

As provided for in the Agenda of the Vienna Meeting, the representatives of the participating States held a thorough exchange of views both on the implementation of the provisions of the Final Act and the Madrid Concluding Document and of the tasks defined by the Conference, as well as, in the context of the questions dealt with by the latter, on the deepening of their mutual relations, the improvement of security and the development of co-operation in Europe, and the development of the process of detente in the future.

During this exchange of views the participating States examined thoroughly and in detail the implementation of the Final Act and of the Madrid Concluding Document. Different and at times contradictory opinions were expressed about the extent of the realization of these commitments. While encouraging developments were noted in many areas, the participants criticized the continuing serious deficiencies in the implementation of these documents.

An open and frank discussion was held about the application of and respect for the principles of the Final Act. Concern was expressed about serious violations of a number of these principles. In particular, questions relating to respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms were the focus of intensive and controversial discussion. The participating States agreed that full respect for the principles, in all their aspects, is essential for the improvement of their mutual relations.

The implementation of the provisions of the Final Act concerning confidence-building measures, concerning cooperation in the field of economics, of science and technology and of the environment, concerning questions relating to security and co-operation in the Mediterranean as well as concerning cooperation in humanitarian and other fields was discussed. The implementation of the provisions of the Madrid Concluding Document and of other CSCE documents was also discussed. It was considered that the numerous possibilities offered by the Final Act had not been sufficiently realized.

The participating States also expressed concern about the spread of terrorism and condemned it unreservedly.

The discussion reflected the broader context of the CSCE process and confirmed the importance of taking into account its world dimension in implementing the provisions of the Final Act.

In their deliberations the representatives of the participating States took into account the results of

– the Stockholm Conference on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures and Disarma ment in Europe;

– the Athens Meeting of Experts in order to pursue the examination and elaboration of a generally acceptable method for the peaceful settlement of disputes aimed at complementing existing methods;

– the Venice Seminar on Economic, Scientific and Cultural Co-operation in the Mediterranean;

– the Ottawa Meeting of Experts on Questions concerning Respect, in their States, for Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, in all their Aspects, as embodied in the Final Act;

– the Budapest “Cultural Forum”;

– the Bern Meeting of Experts on Human Contacts.

The participating States moreover noted that the tenth anniversary of the signing of the Final Act had been commemorated at Helsinki on 1 August 1985.

The participating States reaffirmed their commitment to the continuation of the CSCE process as agreed to in the chapter on the Follow-up to the Conference contained in the Final Act. Recognizing the need for balanced progress covering all sections of the Final Act, they expressed their determination also to benefit from new opportunities for their co-operation and reached corresponding decisions concerning follow-up activities.

The representatives of the participating States examined all the proposals submitted to the Meeting and agreed on the following:

QUESTIONS RELATING TO SECURITY IN EUROPE

The participating States express their determination

– to build on the current positive developments in their relations in order to make detente a viable, comprehensive and genuine process, universal in scope;

– to assume their responsibility fully to implement the commitments contained in the Final Act and other CSCE documents;

– to intensify their efforts to seek solutions to problems burdening their relations and to strengthen safeguards for international peace and security;

– to promote co-operation and dialogue among them, to ensure the effective exercise of human rights and fundamental freedoms and to facilitate contacts and communication between people;

– to exert new efforts to make further progress to strengthen confidence and security and to promote disarmament.

Principles

(1) The participating States reaffirm their commitment to all ten principles of the Final Act’s Declaration on Principles Guiding Relations between participating States and their determination to respect them and put them into practice. The participating States reaffirm that all these principles are of primary significance and, accordingly, will be equally and unreservedly applied, each of them being interpreted taking into account the others.

(2) They stress that respect for and full application of these principles as well as strict compliance with all CSCE commitments deriving from them are of great political importance and essential for building confidence and security as well as for the development of their friendly relations and of their co-operation in all fields.

(3) In this context, they confirm that they will respect each other’s right freely to choose and develop their political, social, economic and cultural systems as well as their right to determine their laws, regulations, practices and policies. In exercising these rights, they will ensure that their laws, regulations, practices and policies conform with their obligations under international law and are brought into harmony with the provisions of the Declaration on Principles and other CSCE commitments.

(4) They also confirm that, by virtue of the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples and in conformity with the relevant provisions of the Final Act, all peoples always have the right, in full freedom, to determine, when and as they wish, their internal and external political status, without external interference, and to pursue as they wish their political, economic, social and cultural development.

(5) They confirm their commitment strictly and effectively to observe the principle of the territorial integrity of States. They will refrain from any violation of this principle and thus from any action aimed by direct or indirect means, in contravention of the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, other obligations under international law or the provisions of the Final Act, at violating the territorial integrity, political independence or the unity of a State. No actions or situations in contravention of this principle will be recognized as legal by the participating States.

(6) The participating States confirm their commitment to the principle of peaceful settlement of disputes, convinced that it is an essential complement to the duty of States to refrain from the threat or use of force, both being essential factors for the maintenance and consolidation of peace and security. They express their determination to pursue continuous efforts to examine and elaborate, on the basis of the relevant provisions of the Final Act and the Madrid Concluding Document and taking into account the reports of the meetings of experts in Montreux and Athens, a generally acceptable method for the peaceful settlement of disputes aimed at complementing existing methods. In this context they accept, in principle, the mandatory involvement of a third party when a dispute cannot be settled by other peaceful means.

(7) In order to ensure the progressive implementation of this commitment, including, as a first step, the mandatory involvement of a third party in the settlement of certain categories of disputes, they decide to convene a Meeting of Experts in Valletta from 15 January to 8 February 1991 to establish a list of such categories and the related procedures and mechanisms. This list would be subject to subsequent gradual extension. The Meeting will also consider the possibility of establishing mechanisms for arriving at binding third-party decisions. The next CSCE Follow-up Meeting will assess the progress achieved at the Meeting of Experts. The agenda, timetable and other organizational modalities are set out in Annex I.

(8) The participating States unreservedly condemn, as criminal, all acts, methods and practices of terrorism, wherever and by whomever committed, including those which jeopardize friendly relations among States and their security, and agree that terrorism cannot be justified under any circumstances.

(9) They express their determination to work for the eradication of terrorism both bilaterally and through multilateral co-operation, particularly in such international fora as the United Nations, the International Civil Aviation Organization and the International Maritime Organization and in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Final Act and the Madrid Concluding Document.

(10) Convinced of the need to combine measures at a national level with reinforced international co-operation, the participating States express their intention

(10.1) – to pursue a policy of firmness in response to terrorist demands;

(10.2) – to reinforce and develop bilateral and multilateral co-operation among themselves in order to prevent and combat terrorism as well as to increase efficiency in existing co-operation at the bilateral level or in the framework of groups of States including, as appropriate, through the exchange of information;

(10.3.) – to prevent on their territories illegal activities of persons, groups or organizations that instigate, organize or engage in the perpetration of acts of terrorism or subversive or other activities directed towards the violent overthrow of the regime of another participating State;

(10.4) – to take effective measures for the prevention and suppression of acts of terrorism directed at diplomatic or consular representatives and against terrorism involving violations of the Vienna Conventions on Diplomatic and Consular Relations, in articular their provisions relating to diplomatic and consular privileges and immunities;

(10.5) – to ensure the extradition or prosecution of persons implicated in terrorist acts and to co-operate closely in cases of conflict of jurisdiction where several States are concerned, acting in both respects in accordance with the relevant international agreements;

(10.6) – to consider becoming parties, if they have not yet done so, to the relevant international conventions relating to the suppression of acts of terrorism;

(10.7) – to continue to work in the appropriate international bodies in order to improve and extend measures against terrorism and to ensure that the relevant agreements are accepted and acted upon by as many States as possible.

(11) They confirm that they will respect human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the freedom of thought, conscience, religion or belief, for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion. They also confirm the universal significance of human rights and fundamental freedoms, respect for which is an essential factor for the peace, justice and security necessary to ensure the development of friendly relations and cooperation among themselves, as among all States.

(12) They express their determination to guarantee the effective exercise of human rights and fundamental freedoms, all of which derive from the inherent dignity of the human person and are essential for his free and full development. They recognize that civil, political, economic, social, cultural and other rights and freedoms are all of paramount importance and must be fully realized by all appropriate means.

(13) In this context they will

(13.1) – develop their laws, regulations and policies in the field of civil, political, economic, social, cultural and other human rights and fundamental freedoms and put them into practice in order to guarantee the effective exercise of these rights and freedoms;

(13.2) – consider acceding to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Optional Protocol to the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and other relevant international instruments, if they have not yet done so;

(13.3) – publish and disseminate the text of the Final Act, of the Madrid Concluding Document and of the present Document as well as those of any relevant international instruments in the field of human rights, in order to ensure the availability of these documents in their entirety, to make them known as widely as possible and to render them accessible to all individuals in their countries, in particular through public library systems;

(13.4) – effectively ensure the right of the individual to know and act upon his rights and duties in this field, and to that end publish and make accessible all laws, regulations and procedures relating to human rights and fundamental freedoms;

(13.5) – respect the right of their citizens to contribute actively, individually or in association with others, to the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms;

(13.6) – encourage in schools and other educational institutions consideration of the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms;

(13.7) – ensure human rights and fundamental freedoms to everyone within their territory and subject to their jurisdiction, without distinction of any kind such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status;

(13.8) – ensure that no individual exercising, expressing the intention to exercise or seeking to exercise these rights and freedoms or any member of his family, will as a consequence be discriminated against in any manner;

(13.9) – ensure that effective remedies as well as full information about them are available to those who claim that their human rights and fundamental freedoms have been violated; hey will, inter alia, effectively apply the following remedies:

– the right of the individual to appeal to executive, legislative, judicial or administrative organs;

– the right to a fair and public hearing within a reasonable time before an independent and impartial tribunal, including the right to present legal arguments and to be represented by legal counsel of one’s choice;

– the right to be promptly and officially informed of the decision taken on any appeal, including the legal grounds on which this decision was based. This information will be provided as a rule in writing and, in any event, in a way that will enable the individual to make effective use of further available remedies.

(14) The participating States recognize that the promotion of economic, social, cultural rights as well as of civil and political rights is of paramount importance for human dignity and for the attainment of the legitimate aspirations of every individual. They will therefore continue their efforts with a view to achieving progressively the full realization of economic, social and cultural rights by all appropriate means, including in particular by the adoption of legislative measures. In this context they will pay special attention to problems in the areas of employment, housing, social security, health, education and culture. They will promote constant progress in the realization of all rights and freedoms within their countries, as well as in the development of relations among themselves and with other States, so that everyone actually enjoys to the full his economic, social and cultural rights as well as his civil and political rights.

(15) The participating States confirm their determination to ensure equal rights of men and women. Accordingly, they will take all measures necessary, including legislative measures, to promote equally effective participation of men and women in political, economic, social and cultural life. They will consider the possibility of acceding to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, if they have not yet done so.

(16) In order to ensure the freedom of the individual to profess and practise religion or belief, the participating States will, inter alia,

(16.1) – take effective measures to prevent and eliminate discrimination against individuals or communities on the grounds of religion or belief in the recognition, exercise and enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms in all fields of civil, political, economic, social and cultural life, and to ensure the effective equality between believers and non-believers;

(16.2) – foster a climate of mutual tolerance and respect between believers of different communities as well as between believers and non-believers;

(16.3) – grant upon their request to communities of believers, practising or prepared to practise their faith within the constitutional framework of their States, recognition of the status provided for them in their respective countries;

(16.4) – respect the right of these religious communities to

– establish and maintain freely accessible places of worship or assembly,

– organize themselves according to their own hierarchical and institutional structure,

– select, appoint and replace their personnel in accordance with their respective requirements and standards as well as with any freely accepted arrangement between them and their State,

– solicit and receive voluntary financial and other contributions;

(16.5) – engage in consultations with religious faiths, institutions and organizations in order to achieve a better understanding of the requirements of religious freedom;

(16.6) – respect the right of everyone to give and receive religious education in the language of his choice, whether individually or in association with others;

(16.7) – in this context respect, inter alia, the liberty of parents to ensure the religious and moral education of their children in conformity with their own convictions;

(16.8) – allow the training of religious personnel in appropriate institutions;

(16.9) – respect the right of individual believers and communities of believers to acquire, possess, and use sacred books, religious publications in the language of their choice and other articles and materials related to the practice of religion or belief,

(16.10) – allow religious faiths, institutions and organizations to produce, import and disseminate religious publications and materials;

(16.11) – favourably consider the interest of religious communities to participate in public dialogue, including through the mass media.

(17) The participating States recognize that the exercise of the above-mentioned rights relating to the freedom of religion or belief may be subject only to such limitations as are provided by law and consistent with their obligations under international law and with their international commitments. They will ensure in their laws and regulations and in their application the full and effective exercise of the freedom of thought, conscience, religion or belief.

(18) The participating States will exert sustained efforts to implement the provisions of the Final Act and of the Madrid Concluding Document pertaining to national minorities. They will take all the necessary legislative, administrative, judicial and other measures and apply the relevant international instruments by which they may be bound, to ensure the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms of persons belonging to national minorities within their territory. They will refrain from any discrimination against such persons and will contribute to the realization of their legitimate interests and aspirations in the field of human rights and fundamental freedoms.

(19) They will protect and create conditions for the promotion of the ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious identity of national minorities on their territory. They will respect the free exercise of rights by persons belonging to such minorities and ensure their full equality with others.

(20) The participating States win respect fully the right of everyone

– to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each State, and

– to leave any country, including his own, and to retum to his country.

(21) The participating States will ensure that the exercise of the above-mentioned rights will not be subject to any restrictions except those which are provided by law and are consistent with their obligations under international law, in particular the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and with their international commitments, in particular the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. These restrictions have the character of exceptions. The participating States will ensure that these restrictions are not abused and are not applied in an arbitrary manner, but in such a way that the effective exercise of these rights is ensured.

(22) In this context they will allow all refugees who so desire to return in safety to their homes.

(23) The participating States will

(23.1) – ensure that no one will be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile;

(23.2) – ensure that all individuals in detention or incarceration will be treated with humanity and with respect for the inherent dignity of the human person;

(23.3) – observe the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners as well as the United Nations Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials;

(23.4) – prohibit torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment and take effective legislative, administrative, judicial and other measures to prevent and punish such practices;

(23.5) – consider acceding to the Convention against Torture and other Cruel, inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, if they have not yet done so;

(23.6) – protect individuals from any psychiatric or other medical practices that violate human rights and fundamental freedoms and take effective measures to prevent and punish such practices.

(24) With regard to the question of capital punishment, the participating States note that capital punishment has been abolished in a number of them. In participating States where capital punishment has not been abolished, sentence of death may be imposed only for the most serious crimes in accordance with the law in force at the time of the commission of the crime and not contrary to their international commitments. This question will be kept under consideration. In this context, the participating States will co-operate within relevant international organizations.

(25) With the aim of developing mutual understanding and confidence, promoting friendly and good neighbourly relations, strengthening international peace, security and justice and improving the implementation of their CSCE commitments, the participating States will further develop co-operation and promote dialogue between them in all fields and at all levels on the basis of full equality. They agree that full respect for and application of the principles and the fulfilment of the other CSCE provisions will improve their relations and advance the development of their co-operation. They will refrain from any action inconsistent with the provisions of the Final Act and other CSCE documents and recognize that any such action would impair relations between them and hinder the development of co-operation among them.

(26) They confirm that governments, institutions, organizations and persons have a relevant and positive role to play in contributing to the achievement of the aims of their co-operation and to the full realization of the Final Act. To that end they will respect the right of persons to observe and promote the implementation of CSCE provisions and to associate with others for this purpose. They will facilitate direct contacts and communication among these persons, organizations and institutions within and between participating States and remove, where they exist, legal and administrative impediments inconsistent with the CSCE provisions. They will also take effective measures to facilitate access to information on the implementation of CSCE provisions and to facilitate the free expression of views on these matters.

(27) The participating States heard accounts of the Meeting of Experts on Questions concerning Respect, in their States, for Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, in all their Aspects, as embodied in the Final Act, held in Ottawa from 7 May to 17 June 1985. They welcomed the fact that frank discussions had taken place of matters of key concern. Noting that these discussions had not led to agreed conclusions, they agreed that such thorough exchanges of views themselves constitute a valuable contribution to the CSCE process. In this respect it was noted in particular that proposals made at the Meeting had received further consideration at the Vienna Follow-up Meeting. They also welcomed the decision to allow public access to part of the Meeting and noted that this practice was further developed at later meetings.

Confidence- and Security-building Measures and Certain Aspects ofSecurity and Disarmament in Europe Stockholm Conference: Assessment of progress achieved

The participating States,

In accordance with the relevant provisions of the Madrid Concluding Document, assessed progress achieved during the Conference on Confidence- and Security-building Measures and Disarmament in Europe, which met in Stockholm from 17 January 1984 to 19 September 1986.

They welcomed the adoption at Stockholm of a set of mutually complementary confidence- and security-building measures (CSBMs).

They noted that these measures are in accordance with the criteria of the Madrid mandate and constitute a substantial improvement and extension of the confidence-building measures adopted in the Final Act.

They noted that the adoption of the Stockholm Document was a politically significant achievement and that its measures are an important step in efforts aimed at reducing the risk of military confrontation in Europe. They agreed that the extent to which the measures will in practice contribute to greater confidence and security will depend on the record of implementation. They were encouraged by initial implementation and noted that further experience and detailed review will be required. They reaffirmed their determination to comply strictly with and apply in good faith all the provisions of the Document of the Stockholm Conference.

They reaffirmed their commitment to the provisions of the Madrid Concluding Document relating to the Conference on Confidence- and Security-building Measures and Disarmament in Europe and agreed to resume the work of the Conference with a view to achieving further progress towards its aim.

New efforts for security and disarmament in Europe

The participating States,

Recalling the relevant provisions of the Final Act and of the Madrid Concluding Document according to which they recognize the interest of all of them in efforts aimed at lessening military confrontation and promoting disarmament,

Reaffirming their determination expressed in the Final Act to strengthen confidence among them and thus to contribute to increasing stability and security in Europe,

Stressing the complementary nature of the efforts within the framework of the CSCE process aimed at building confidence and security and establishing stability and achieving progress in disarmament, in order to lessen military confrontation and to enhance security for all,

Stressing that in undertaking such efforts they will respect the security interests of all CSCE participating States inherent in their sovereign equality,

Having also considered ways and appropriate means to continue their efforts for security and disarmament in Europe,

Have reached the understanding that these efforts should be structured as set forth below:

Negotiations on Confidence- and Security-building Measures

The participating States have agreed that Negotiations on Confidence- and Security-building Measures will take place in order to build upon and expand the results already achieved at the Stockholm Conference with the aim of elaborating and adopting a new set of mutually complementary confidence- and security-building measures designed to reduce the risk of military confrontation in Europe.

These negotiations will take place in accordance with the Madrid mandate.

The decisions of the Preparatory Meeting held in Helsinki from 25 October to 11 November 1983 will be applied mutatis mutandis (see Annex II).

These negotiations will take place in Vienna, commencing in the week beginning on 6 March 1989.

The next Follow-up Meeting of the participating States of the CSCE, to be held in Helsinki, commencing on 24 March 1992, will assess the progress achieved in these negotiations.

Negotiation on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe

The Negotiation on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe will take place as agreed by those States named in the mandate contained in the Chairman’s statement in Annex III of this document, who among themselves have determined the agenda, the rules of procedure and the organizational modalities of these negotiations, and will determine their timetable and results. These negotiations will be conducted within the framework of the CSCE process.

These negotiations will take place in Vienna, commencing in the week beginning on 6 March 1989.

The next Follow-up Meeting of the participating States of the CSCE, to be held in Helsinki, commencing on 24 March 1992, will exchange views on the progress achieved in these negotiations.

Meetings in order to Exchange Views and Information concerning the course of the Negotiation on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe

It has been agreed that the participating States will hold meetings in order to exchange views-and information concerning the course of the Negotiation on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe.

These meetings will be held at least twice during each session of the Negotiation on Conven-

tional Armed Forces in Europe.

Provisions on practical modalities relating to these meetings are contained in Annex IV of this Document.

At these meetings, substantive information will be provided by the participants in the Negotiation on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe on developments, progress and results in the negotiations with the aim of enabling each participating State to appraise their course.

The participants in these negotiations have undertaken to take into consideration, in the course of their negotiations, the views expressed at such meetings by other participating States concerning their own security.

Information will also be provided on a bilateral basis.

The next Follow-up Meeting of the participating States of the CSCE, to be held in Helsinki, commencing on 24 March 1992, win consider the functioning of these arrangements.

Taking into account the relevant provisions of the Final Act and of the Madrid Concluding Document, and having considered the results achieved in the two negotiations, and also in the light of other relevant negotiations on security and disarmament affecting Europe, a future CSCE follow-up meeting will consider ways and appropriate means for the participating States to continue their efforts for security and disarmament in Europe, including the question of supplementing the Madrid mandate for the next stage of the Conference on Confidence- and Security-building Measures and Disarmament in Europe.

CO-OPERATION IN THE FIELD OF ECONOMICS, OF SCIENCE ANDTECHNOLOGY AND OF THE ENVIRONMENT

The participating States reaffirm their willingness to further their co-operation in the field of economics, of science and technology and of the environment, and to promote stable and equitable international economic relations in the interest of all States. They express their readiness to intensify the dialogue in the competent fora with a view to facilitating appropriate solutions for key interrelated economic issues such as money, finance, debt and trade. In this connection, they stress the importance of policies aimed at promoting structural adjustments, stimulating the growth of national economies and creating an international economic environment conducive to development.

The participating States recognize the important role of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) in fostering regional economic co-operation and in contributing to the implementation of the provisions of the Final Act and subsequent CSCE documents. They express their readiness to make further use of the existing framework, resources and experience of the ECE in areas which are of significance for the implementation of recommendations of the CSCE.

Trade and industrial co-operation

(1) In order to make better use of their economic potential, and to foster the expansion of their commercial exchanges, the participating States will make further efforts to promote favourable conditions for trade and industrial co-operation, taking into account all the relevant provisions of the Final Act and the Madrid Concluding Document.

(2) The participating States recognize the importance of favourable business conditions for the development of trade between them. They will facilitate direct contacts between business people, potential buyers and end-users, including on-site contacts relevant to the business intended or being transacted. They will take measures to improve working conditions for business people, regarding, among other things, accreditation, accommodation, communications, and recruitment and management of personnel. They will also take measures to avoid unjustifiable delays in visa procedures and customs clearance. Further, they recognize the opportunities offered by trade fairs and exhibitions for developing commercial contacts and achieving concrete business results.

(3) The participating States will continue their efforts further to reduce or progressively eliminate obstacles of all kinds to trade, thus contributing to the expansion and diversification of their commercial relations. They express their support for the work done in this field in appropriate international fora.

(4) The participating States will encourage forms of trade compatible with the efficient conduct of international business relations and will also encourage business partners to decide independently upon their trading patterns. As to compensation transactions in all their forms, they recommend that proposals of this kind be addressed at the beginning of negotiations and, when agreed upon, dealt with in a flexible way, especially regarding the choice of products. In this connection, the special concerns of small and medium-sized enterprises should be taken into account. The participating States recognize the valuable role of the ECE in dealing with questions related to compensation transactions.

(5) The participating States recognize that, within their respective economies, increased autonomy for enterprises can help achieve a better response to market needs and thus contribute to the development of trade and co-operation among them.

(6) In order to facilitate the identification of market opportunities, the participating States will further promote the publication and availability of comprehensive, comparable and timely economic and commercial information. They will publish up-to-date macroeconomic information and statistics, and envisage making balance of payment figures available. They will also provide the United Nations trade databank, COMTRADE, with detailed data in a format relevant to the efficient conduct of foreign trade. They will encourage cooperation between their statistical services and within the framework of the ECE in order, inter alia, to facilitate the identification of disparities in foreign trade statistics and to improve the international comparability of such statistics. Furthermore, they consider it useful to increase the publication and exchange of statistics on such topics as demography, public health, agriculture, the environment and energy.

(7) Noting the growing importance of services in their mutual economic relations, the participating States will examine, in appropriate bodies, developments in this area and prospects for improved access to the services market.

(8) Affirming the importance of industrial co-operation in their long-term economic relations, the participating States will promote measures designed to create favourable conditions for the development of such co-operation. They will therefore examine, within the competent fora, the improvement of the legal, administrative and economic framework for industrial co-operation. Furthermore, they will encourage contacts between potential partners, develop exchanges of appropriate information and promote the participation of small and medium-sized enterprises in industrial co-operation.

(9) The participating States recognize that productive, competitive and profit-earning joint ventures can play a role in mutually beneficial industrial cooperation. They will improve the legal, administrative and financial conditions for investment in, and operation of, joint ventures. They will also promote the exchange of all information relevant to the establishment of joint ventures, including all necessary technical information, as well as information on management, labour conditions, accounting and taxation, repatriation of profits and the protection of investments, production conditions and access to domestic supplies and markets.

(10) The participating States stress the importance of their standardization policies and practices, and of related activities, for the facilitation of international trade, especially regarding products subject to compulsory certification. Accordingly, they will consider mutual recognition of their national testing and certification procedures and practices, and promote co-operation among relevant national bodies and within international organizations including the ECE.

(11) The participating States recognize the growing importance of effective marketing in the development of trade and industrial co-operation, in the production and promotion of new products and in meeting the needs of the consumer. Given the growth of marketing opportunities, they will seek to improve the conditions for firms and organizations engaging in research into domestic or foreign markets and in other marketing activities.

(12) The participating States affirm the usefulness for all enterprises, and especially for small and medium-sized ones, of flexible and mutually agreed arbitration provisions for ensuring the equitable settlement of disputes in international trade and industrial co-operation. Bearing in mind the relevant provisions of the Final Act and the Madrid Concluding Document, they attach particular importance to freedom in the choice of arbitrators, including the presiding arbitrator, and of the country of arbitration. They recommend that consideration be given to the adoption of the odel Law on international commercial arbitration of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL). In addition, they recognize the value of agreements on cooperation in the field of commercial arbitration between Chambers of Commerce and other arbitration bodies.

(13) The participating States agree to convene a Conference on Economic Co-operation in Europe. This Conference will take place in Bonn from 19 March to 11 April 1990. The aim of the Conference is to provide new impulses for economic relations between participating States, in particular by improving business conditions for commercial exchanges and industrial cooperation and by considering new possibilities for, and ways of, economic co-operation. The Conference will be attended by representatives of the participating States and of the business community. The agenda, timetable and other organizational modalities are set out in Annex V. The next Follow-up Meeting, to be held in Helsinki, commencing on 24 March 1992, will assess the results achieved at the Conference.

Science and technology

(14) The participating States emphasize the important role of science and technology in their overall economic and social development, bearing in mind particularly those sciences and technologies which are of direct relevance to improving the quality of life.

(15) Recognizing the importance of scientific and technological co-operation, the participating States will develop further mutually advantageous co-operation in the fields already set forth in the Final Act, and will examine possibilities for co-operation in new areas of growing importance and common interest. Furthermore, they express their intention to improve conditions for such co-operation by fostering the exchange of information on, and experience with, scientific and technological achievements, having in mind especially the interests of the countries of the region which are developing from the economic point of view.

(16) The participating States also reaffirm the role of general intergovernmental agreements as well as of bilateral agreements involving universities, scientific and technological institutions and industry, in developing mutually beneficial exchanges. Underlining the importance of freedom of communication and exchange of views for progress in science and technology, they will promote and support direct and individual contacts between scientists, specialists and interested business people. Recaffing the conclusions reached at the Hamburg Scientific Forum, they will respect human rights and fundamental freedoms, which represent one of the foundations for a significant improvement in international scientific co-operation at all levels. They win also endeavour to create conditions enabling interested partners to develop appropriate joint research programmes and projects on the basis of reciprocity and mutual advantage and, when appropriate, on a commercial basis.

(17) Given the depletion of natural resources, including non-renewable sources of energy, the participating States will promote co-operation in the rational use of such resources, and in the use of alternative sources of energy, including thermonuclear fusion.

(18) Taking note of the progress made in, and the new opportunities offered by, research and development in biotechnology, the participating States consider it desirable to enhance the exchange of information on laws and regulations relating to the safety aspects of genetic engineering. They will therefore facilitate consultation and exchange of information on safety guidelines. In this context, they emphasize the importance of ethical principles when dealing with genetic engineering and its application.

(19) The participating States will develop their co-operation in medical and related sciences by intensifying research and the exchange of information on drug abuse and on new or increasingly widespread diseases. They will co-operate in particular in combating the spread of AIDS, taking into account the Global AIDS Strategy of the World Health Organization (WHO). They will also co-operate in research concerning the long-term consequences of radiation.

(20) The participating States recognize the importance of scientific research, of environmentally sound technologies and, in particular, of improved international co-operation in these fields, for the monitoring, prevention and reduction of pollution. They will therefore promote, inter alia within the relevant international fora, exchange of information on, and experience with, these technologies. In this respect they will also promote, on a commercial basis, exchanges in the fields of pollution-abatement technologies, technologies and products with less or no emission of ozone-depleting substances, processing and combustion techniques, new methods of waste treatment including recycling and disposal, and low- and non-waste technologies.

(21) The participating States will exchange appropriate information in specific fields of engineering industries and automation. They will do this on the basis of mutual advantage for potential partners, who will decide independently on the areas of co-operation and with due respect for bilateral and multilateral agreements. To this end they will, inter alia develop statistics in fields of engineering industries of commercial importance.

(22) In the context of their scientific and technological co-operation, the participating States will consider the possibility of encouraging the development and use of alternatives to animal experimentation, including for product testing.

(23) In the important field of nuclear energy, the participating States recognize that, while individual States should assume full responsibility for the safety of their own nuclear facilities, nuclear safety requires closer international co-operation, especially within the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). They note that it is essential to maintain the highest possible safety standards in the management and operation of nuclear facilities. They therefore support the work done within the IAEA in developing basic safety principles, and urge all States to use the revised Nuclear Safety Standards-NUSS codes-as a basis for regulating nuclear safety practices. They also recall the need further to improve the efficiency of the existing system of nuclear liability.

Environment

(24) Recognizing the need for preventive action, the participating States will strengthen their co-operation and intensify efforts aimed at protecting and improving the environment, bearing in mind the need to maintain and restore the ecological balance in air, water and soil. They win do this by, inter alia developing their internal legislation and their international commitments, and by applying the best available means, taking into account levels of developments as well as economic and technical constraints. They underline the importance of the Regional Strategy for Environmental Protection and Rational Use of Natural Resources in ECE Member Countries Covering the Period up to the Year 2000 and Beyond. They welcome, and will take due account of, the report of the World Commission on Environment and Development and the Environmental Perspective to the Year 2000 and Beyond, as well as the work already undertaken within the competent international fora, in particular within the framework of the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (hereafter called “the Convention”).

(25) The participating States are convinced of the need for timely and effective reductions of sulphur emissions or their transboundary fluxes. They call upon Contracting Parties and Signatories to the Convention to become parties to the Protocol on the reduction of sulphur emissions or their transboundary fluxes by at least 30 per cent. They recommend that further steps to reduce sulphur emissions, in line with the objectives of the Protocol, be taken by those States which are not parties to the Protocol, and that those States where this goal is already accomplished continue to control their emissions. Recalling that the said Protocol provides for reductions of sulphur emissions at the latest by 1993, they will work within the framework of the Convention for the elaboration at an early date of an arrangement for further reductions of sulphur emissions beyond the level established by the Protocol.

(26) The participating States consider that control and reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions, or their transboundary fluxes, deserve high priority in their pollution abatement programmes. They welcome the elaboration and adoption of the Protocol on Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions.

(27) Furthermore, they recognize the need to develop, within the framework of the Convention, arrangements to reduce emissions of other relevant air pollutants such as hydrocarbons and those producing photochemical oxidants. They will strengthen their co-operation accordingly, including by collecting and processing the necessary information.

(28) The participating States agree to strengthen and develop the co-operative programme for the Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP), inter alia through extending and improving the system of monitoring stations, providing EMEP with the necessary information regarding emissions of pollutants, further developing comparable methods of measurement, and expanding coverage to include other relevant air pollutants, in particular nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants. They also recommend that those countries which have not yet done so should become parties to the Protocol on the Long-Term Financing of EMEP.

(29) The participating States will make every effort to become parties, as soon as possible, to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Further, they will foster national action and international co-operation on the control and reduction of the emission of ozone-depleting substances.

  1. The participating States agree that further national and international research efforts should be made regarding the global warming phenomenon, and the role played therein by emissions of carbon dioxide and trace gases, in order to provide a scientific basis for mitigative action.

(31) In order to protect and improve freshwater resources and to reduce significantly the pollution of seas and costal areas, transboundary watercourses and international lakes from all sources of pollution, the participating States will develop and intensify national efforts as well as bilateral and multilateral co-operation. They recommend the elaboration of a framework convention or specific conventions to improve the protection of transboundary watercourses and international lakes. They will reduce significantly discharges of toxic, persistent and potentially hazardous substances. Furthermore they will devote special attention to the development of appropriate alternatives to sea disposal in order to decrease progressively and substantially the dumping of harmful wastes and the incineration of noxious liquid wastes at sea, with a view to the early termination of such methods.

(32) The participating States recognize the need to improve international co-operation on the transboundary movement of hazardous wastes. Taking into account the valuable work done in other international fora, they will encourage the elaboration of international agreements, including a global convention on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes.

(33) The participating States will seek closer co-operation and greater exchange of information on the problems associated with potentially hazardous chemical including assessment of the risks to health and the environment. They will explore possibilities for closer harmonization of their legislation and regulations on the handling of these chemicals.

(34) The participating States will strengthen international co-operation on natural resources and flora and fauna. They will promote early accession to, and effective implementation of, relevant agreements. They will also develop further effective measures to combat sod degradation and to protect flora, fauna and their habitats on the basis of the Declaration on this subject adopted by the ECE. They will intensify their exchanges of views and experience on ways and means of achieving a more rational use of natural resources.

(35) The participating States acknowledge the importance of the contribution of persons and organizations dedicated to the protection and improvement of the environment, and win allow them to express their concerns. They will promote greater public awareness and understanding of environmental issues and will co-operate in the field of environmental education, inter alia through exchanges of experience and results of research studies, development of educational programmes and ecological training.

(36) The participating States will cooperate bilaterally and multilaterally with a view to improving and co-ordinating their arrangements for prevention, early warning, exchange of information and mutual assistance in cases of industrial accidents likely to cause transboundary damage to the environment. They will also initiate the examination of key elements related to the transboundary character of industrial accidents, such as clean-up, restoration and liability.

(37) The participating States agree to convene a Meeting on the protection of the environment. This Meeting will take place in Sofia from 16 October to 3 November 1989. The aim of the Meeting is to elaborate recommendations on principles and guidelines for further measures and co-operation in new and important areas of environmental protection. The agenda, timetable and other organizational modalities are set out in Annex VI. The next Follow-up Meeting, to be held in Helsinki, commencing on 24 March 1992, will assess the results achieved at the Meeting.

Co-operation in other areas

(38) The participating States recognize the important role of transport in economic and social development and the overall consequences of increased activity in the transport sector, including problems related to the environment. They will therefore encourage the elaboration of measures for achieving an economically more efficient transport system, taking into account the relative merits of different modes of transport and their potential effects on human health, safety and the environment. in this connection they will, through bilateral and multilateral means, give particular attention to questions concerning multimodal transport networks, combined transport, transit nows and the simplification of transport formalities and, in particular, of transport documents. They also welcome the work done by the ECE in this context.

(39) The participating States underline the economic importance of tourism and its contribution to the mutual understanding of peoples. They therefore favour the development of co-operation in this field and will facilitate normal contacts between tourists and the local population. To this end they will endeavour to improve the infrastructure for tourism, inter alia by diversifying accommodation and by developing facilities for low-budget and youth tourism, including small-scale private accommodation. They will also consider in a positive spirit the progressive phasing out, for foreign tourists, of minimum exchange requirements where they apply, allow the reconversion of legally acquired local currency, and, furthermore, encourage non-discriminatory pricing for all foreign tourists irrespective of their nationality. They will also reduce arrival and departure procedures to the necessary minimum. The participating States will create conditions conducive to the establishment of joint projects in the field of tourism, including joint ventures and personnel training programmes.

(40) The participating States emphasize the need for effective implementation of the provisions of the Final Act and the Madrid Concluding Document relating to migrant workers and their families in Europe. They invite host countries and countries of origin to make efforts to improve further the economic, social, cultural and other conditions of life for migrant workers and their families legally residing in the host countries. They recommend that host countries and countries of origin should promote their bilateral co-operation in relevant fields with a view to facilitating the reintegration of migrant workers and their families returning to their country of origin.

(41) The participating States will, in accordance with their relevant commitments undertaken in the Final Act and the Madrid Concluding Document, consider favourably applications for family reunification as well as family contacts and visits involving migrant workers from other participating States legally residing in the host countries.

(42) The participating States will ensure that migrant workers from other participating States, and their families, can freely enjoy and maintain their national culture and have access to the culture of the host country.

(43) Aiming at ensuring effective equality of opportunity between the children of migrant workers and the children of their own nationals regarding access to all forms and levels of education, the participating States affirm their readiness to take measures needed for the better use and improvement of educational opportunities. Furthermore, they will encourage or facilitate, where reasonable demand exists, supplementary teaching in their mother tongue for the children of migrant workers.

(44) The participating States recognize that issues of migrant workers have their human dimension.

(45) The participating States acknowledge that the impact of economic and technological change is being acutely felt in the work place. They underline their readiness to encourage co-operation in the field of vocational training policy through increased exchange of information and experience, with the aim of enhancing the educational standards, professional knowledge, skills and adaptability of personnel involved in industry and commerce.

(46) The participating States recognize the importance of facilitating the integration of young people into professional fife. They will therefore continue their efforts to ensure the necessary conditions for the education and vocational training of young people and to promote youth employment opportunities in various sectors of the economy. They will continue their efforts to create conditions for developing the level of scientific and cultural knowledge of their citizens, especially young people, and for facilitating their access to achievements in the areas of natural and social sciences, as well as culture.

QUESTIONS RELATING TO SECURITY AND CO-OPERATIONIN THE MEDITERRANEAN

The participating States

reaffirm their commitment to, and stress the continuing relevance of, the provisions of the Final Act and the Madrid Concluding Document concerning security and co-operation in the Mediterranean; in this context, they underline the relevance of the Mediterranean paragraph of the Stockholm Document.

They stress the importance of the CSCE process for increasing security and improving co-operation in the Mediterranean area.

They reiterate their conviction that security in Europe is to be considered in the broader context of world security and is closely linked with security in the Mediterranean area as a whole, and that accordingly the process of improving security should not be confined to Europe but should extend to other parts of the world, and in particular to the Mediterranean area.

They express their concern over the continuing tensions in the region and renew their willingness to intensify efforts towards finding just, viable and lasting solutions, through peaceful means, to outstanding crucial problems.

They consider that broader and more active co-operation could contribute to increased mutual understanding and enhanced confidence, thereby promoting stability, security and peace in the region.

They note the results of existing bilateral and multilateral forms of co-operation and express their readiness to increase efforts in the economic, scientific and cultural fields, and in the field of environment, taking due account of the interests of the developing countries in the region, and taking into consideration the work under way in these fields.

They note with satisfaction the positive outcome of the Seminar on economic, scientific and cultural co-operation in the Mediterranean within the framework of the results of the Valletta Meeting of 1979, held in Venice from 16 to 26 October 1984 in accordance with the relevant provisions and objectives of the Madrid Concluding Document. They welcome the concrete contribution of this to the development of co-operation in the Mediterranean area and they support continued efforts to implement its recommendations as well as those of the Valletta Meeting.

They note the continuing interest of the non-participating Mediterranean States in the CSCE and in efforts with the participating States in strengthening security and promoting co-operation in the Mediterranean. They recognize to this end the need to maintain and amplify their contacts with the non-participating Mediterranean States as initiated by the CSCE and to develop good neighbourly relations with all of them, with due regard to reciprocity and in the spirit of the principles contained in the Declaration on Principles Guiding Relations between Participating States of the Final Act.

The participating States

in conformity with the provisions of the Mediterranean chapters of the Final Act and the Madrid Concluding Document, agree to convene a Meeting on the Mediterranean in order to consider ways and means of further enhancing various aspects of co-operation, including the protection and improvement of Mediterranean ecosystems, with the aim of widening the scope of their co-operation with the non-participating Mediterranean States and contributing to the strengthening of confidence and security in the region.

Representatives of the non-participating Mediterranean States (Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Syria and Tunisia) and representatives of the competent international organizations (UNESCO, ECE, UNEP*, WHO, ITU, IMO) will be invited to this Meeting in accordance with the rules and practices adopted for the previous CSCE Mediterranean follow-up events.

The Meeting will be held in Palma de Mallorca from 24 September to 19 October 1990. The agenda, timetable and other organizational modalities are set out in Annex VII.

The next Follow-up Meeting, to be held in Helsinki, commencing on 24 March 1992, will assess the results achieved at this Meeting.

__________________________

* It is understood that the invitation to UNEP includes ROCC (Regional Oil Combating Center) andMAP (Mediterranean Action Plan).

CO-OPERATION IN HUMANITARIAN AND OTHER FIELDS

The participating States,

Considering that co-operation in humanitarian and other fields is an essential factor for the development of their relations,

Agreeing that their co-operation in these fields should take place in full respect for the principles guiding relations between participating States as set forth in the Final Act as well as for the provisions in the Madrid Concluding Document and in the present Document pertaining to those principles,

Confirming that, in implementing the provisions concerning co-operation in humanitarian and other fields in the framework of their laws and regulations, they will ensure that those laws and regulations conform with their obligations under international law and are brought into harmony with their CSCE commitments,

Recognizing that the implementation of the relevant provisions of the Final Act and of the Madrid Concluding Document requires continuous and intensified efforts,

Have adopted and will implement the following:

Human Contacts

(1) In implementing the human contacts provisions of the Final Act, the Madrid Concluding Document and the present Document, they will fully respect their obligations under international law as referred to in the subchapter of the present Document devoted to principles, in particular that everyone shall be free to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country, as well as their international commitments in this field.

(2) They will ensure that their policies concerning entry into their territories are fully consistent with the aims set out in the relevant provisions of the Final Act, the Madrid Concluding Document and the present Document.

(3) They will take the necessary steps to find solutions as expeditiously as possible, but in any case within six months, to all applications based on the human contacts provisions of the Final Act and the Madrid Concluding Document, outstanding at the conclusion of the Vienna Follow-up Meeting.

(4) Thereafter they will conduct regular reviews in order to ensure that all applications based on the human contacts provisions of the Final Act and of the other aforementioned CSCE documents are being dealt with in a manner consistent with those provisions.

(5) They will decide upon applications relating to family meetings in accordance with the Final Act and the other aforementioned CSCE documents in as short a time as possible and in normal practice within one month.

(6) In the same manner they will decide upon applications relating to family reunification or marriage between citizens of different States, in normal practice within three months.

(7) In dealing favourably with applications relating to family meetings, they will take due account of the wishes of the applicant, in particular on the timing and sufficiently long duration of such meetings, and on travelling together with other members of his family for joint family meetings.

(8) In dealing favourably with applications relating to family meetings, they will also allow visits to and from more distant relatives.

  1. In dealing favourably with applications relating to family reunification or marriage between citizens of different States, they will respect the wishes of the applicants on the country of destination ready to accept them.

(10) They will pay particular attention to the solution of problems involving the reunification of minor children with their parents. In this context and on the basis of the relevant provisions of the Final Act and of the other aforementioned CSCE documents, they will ensure

– that an application for this purpose submitted while the child is a minor will be dealt with favourably and expeditiously in order to effect the reunification without delay, and

– that adequate arrangements are made to protect the interests and welfare of the children concerned.

(11) They will consider the scope for gradually reducing and eventually eliminating any requirement which might exist for travellers to obtain local currency in excess of actual expenditure, giving priority to persons travelling for the purpose of family meetings. They will accord such persons the opportunity in practice to bring in or to take out with them personal possessions or gifts.

(12) They will pay immediate attention to applications for travel of an urgent humanitarian nature and deal with them favourably as follows:

– They will decide within three working days upon applications relating to visits to a seriously ill or dying family member, travel to attend the funeral of a family member or travel by those who have a proven need of urgent medical treatment or who can be shown to be critically or terminally ill.

– They will decide as expeditiously as possible upon applications relating to travel by those who are seriously ill or by the elderly, and other travel of an urgent humanitarian nature.

– They will intensify efforts by their local, regional and central authorities concerned with the implementation of the above, and ensure that charges for giving priority treatment to such applications do not exceed costs actually incurred.

(13) In dealing with applications for travel for family meetings, family reunification or marriage between citizens of different States, they win ensure that acts or comissions by members of the applicant’s family do not adversely affect the rights of the applicant as set forth in the relevant international instruments.

(14) They will ensure that all documents necessary for applications based on the human contacts provisions of the Final Act and of the other aforementioned CSCE documents are easily accessible to the applicant. The documents will remain valid throughout the application procedure In the event of a renewed application the documents already submitted by the applicant in connection with previous applications will be taken into consideration.

(15) They will simplify practices and gradually reduce administrative requirements for applications based on the human contacts provisions of the Final Act and of the other aforementioned CSCE documents.

(16) They will ensure that, when applications based on the human contacts provisions of the Final Act and of the other aforementioned CSCE documents are refused for reasons specified in the relevant international instruments, the applicant is promptly provided in writing with an official notification of the grounds on which the decision was based. As a rule and in all cases where the applicant so requests, he will be given the necessary information about the procedure for making use of any effective administrative or judicial remedies against the decision available to him as envisaged in the above-mentioned international instruments. In cases where exit for permanent settlement abroad is involved, this information will be provided as part of the official notification foreseen above.

(17) If in this context an individual’s application for travel abroad has been refused for reasons of national security, they will ensure that, within strictly warranted time limits, any restriction on that individual’s travel is as short as possible and is not applied in an arbitrary manner. They will also ensure that the applicant can have the refusal reviewed within six months and, should the need arise, at regular intervals thereafter so that any changes in the circumstances surrounding the refusal, such as time elapsed since the applicant was last engaged in work or duties involving national security, are taken into account. Before individuals take up such work or duties they will be formally notified if and how this could affect applications they might submit for such travel.

(18) Within one year of the conclusion of the Vienna Follow-up Meeting they win publish and make easily accessible, where this has not already been done, an their laws and statutory regulations concerning movement by individuals within their territory and travel between States.

(19) In dealing favourably with applications based on the human contacts provisions of the Final Act and of the other aforementioned CSCE documents, they will ensure that these are dealt with in good time in order, inter alia, to take due account of important family, personal or professional considerations significant for the applicant.

(20) They will deal favourably with applications for travel abroad without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth, age or other status. They will ensure that any refusal does not affect applications submitted by other persons.

(21) They will further facilitate travel on an individual or collective basis for personal or professional reasons and for tourism, such as travel by delegations, groups and individuals. To this end they will reduce the time for the consideration of applications for such travel to a minimum.

(22) They will give serious consideration to proposals for concluding agreements on the issuing of multiple entry visas and the reciprocal easing of visa processing formalities, and consider possibilities for the reciprocal abolition of entry visas on the basis of agreements between them.

(23) They will consider adhering to the relevant multilateral instruments as well as concluding complementary or other bilateral agreements, if necessary, in order to improve arrangements for ensuring effective consular, legal and medical assistance for citizens of other participating States temporarily on their territory.

(24) They will take any necessary measures to ensure that citizens of other participating States temporarily on their territory for personal or professional reasons, inter alia for the purpose of participating in cultural, scientific and educational activities, are afforded appropriate personal safety, where this is not already the case.

(25) They will facilitate and encourage the establishment and maintenance of direct personal contacts between their citizens as well as between representatives of their institutions and organizations through travel between States and other means of communication.

(26) They will facilitate such contacts and co-operation among their peoples through such measures as direct sports exchanges on a local and regional level, the unimpeded establishment and implementation of town-twinning arrangements, as well as student and teacher exchanges.

(27) They will encourage the further development of direct contacts between young people, as well as between governmental and non-governmental youth and student organizations and institutions; the conclusion between such organizations and institutions of bilateral and multilateral arrangements and programmes; and the holding on a bilateral and multilateral basis of educational, cultural and other events and activities by and for young people.

(28) They will make further efforts to facilitate travel and tourism by young people, inter alia by recommending to those of their railway authorities which are members of the International Union of Railways (UIC) that they expand the Inter-Rail system to cover all their European networks and by recommending to those of their railway authorities which are not members of the UIC that they consider establishing similar facilities.

(29) In accordance with the Universal Postal Convention and the International Telecommunication Convention, they will

– guarantee the freedom of transit of postal communication;

– ensure the rapid and unhindered delivery of correspondence, including personal mail and parcels;

– respect the privacy and integrity of postal and telephone communications; and

– ensure the conditions necessary for rapid and uninterrupted telephone calls, including the use of international direct dialling systems, where they exist, and their development.

(30) They will encourage direct personal contacts between the citizens of their States, inter alia by facilitating individual travel within their countries and by allowing foreigners to meet their citizens as well as, when invited to do so, to stay in private homes.

(31) They will ensure that the status of persons belonging to national minorities or regional cultures on their territories is equal to that of other citizens with regard to human contacts under the Final Act and the other aforementioned CSCE documents and that these persons can establish and maintain such contacts through travel and other means of communication, including contacts with citizens of other States with whom they share a common national origin or cultural heritage.

(32) They will allow believers, religious faiths and their representatives, in groups or on an individual basis, to establish and maintain direct personal contacts and communication with each other, in their own and other countries, inter alia through travel, pilgrimages and participation in assemblies and other religious events. In this context and commensurate with such contacts and events, those concerned will be allowed to acquire, receive and carry with them religious publications and objects related to the practice of their religion or belief.

(33) They heard accounts of the Meeting of Experts on Human Contacts held in Bern from 15 April to 26 May 1986. Noting that no conclusions had been agreed upon at the Meeting, they regarded both the frankness of the discussion and the greater degree of openness in the exchanges as welcome developments. In this respect they noted the particular importance of the fact that proposals made at the Meeting had received further consideration at the Vienna Follow-up Meeting.

Information

(34) They will continue efforts to contribute to an ever wider knowledge and understanding of life in their States, thus promoting confidence between peoples.

They will make further efforts to facilitate the freer and wider dissemination of information of all kinds, to encourage co-operation in the field of information and to improve the working conditions for journalists.

In this connection and in accordance with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and their relevant international commitments concerning seeking, receiving and imparting information of all kinds, they will ensure that individuals can freely choose their sources of information. In this context they will

– ensure that radio services operating in accordance with the ITU Radio Regulations can be directly and normally received in their States; and

– allow individuals, institutions and organizations, while respecting intellectual property rights, including copyright, to obtain, possess, reproduce and distribute information material of all kinds.

To these ends they will remove any restrictions inconsistent with the above-mentioned obligations and commitments.

(35) They will take every opportunity offered by modern means of communication, including cable and satellites. to increase the freer and wider dissemination of information of all kinds. They will also encourage co-operation and exchanges between their relevant institutions, organizations and technical experts, and work towards the harmonization of technical standards and norms. They will bear in mind the effects of these modem means of communication on their mass media.

(36) They will ensure in practice that official information bulletins can be freely distributed on their territory by the diplomatic and other official missions and consular posts of the other participating States.

(37) They will encourage radio and television organizations, on the basis of arrangements between them, to broadcast live, especially in the organizing countries, programmes and discussions with participants from different States and to broadcast statements of and interviews with political and other personalities from the participating States.

(38) They will encourage radio and television organizations to report on different aspects of life in other participating States and to increase the number of telebridges between their countries.

(39) Recalling that the legitimate pursuit of journalists’ professional activity will neither render them liable to expulsion nor otherwise penalize them, they will refrain from taking restrictive measures such as withdrawing a journalist’s accreditation or expelling him because of the content of the reporting of the journalist or of his information media.

(40) They will ensure that, in pursuing this activity, journalists, including those representing media from other participating States, are free to seek access to and maintain contacts with public and private sources of information and that their need for professional confidentiality is respected.

(41) They will respect the copyright of journalists.

(42) On the basis of arrangements between them, where necessary, and for the purpose of regular reporting, they will grant accreditation, where it is required, and multiple entry visas to journalists from other participating States, regardless of their domicile. On this basis they will reduce to a maximum of two months the period for issuing both accreditation and multiple entry visas to journalists.

(43) They will facilitate the work of foreign journalists by providing relevant information, on request, on matters of practical concern, such as import regulations, taxation and accommodation.

(44) They will ensure that official press conferences and, as appropriate, other similar official press events are also open to foreign journalists, upon accreditation, where this is required.

(45) They will ensure in practice that persons belonging to national minorities or regional cultures on their territories can disseminate, have access to, and exchange information in their mother tongue.

(46) They agree to convene an Information Forum to discuss improvement of the circulation of, access to and exchange of information; co-operation in the field of information; and the improvement of working conditions for journalists. The Forum will be held in London from 18 April to

12 May 1989. It will be attended by personalities from the participating States in the field of information. The agenda, timetable and other organizational modalities are set out in Annex VIII.

Co-operation and exchanges in the field of culture

(47) They will promote and give full effect to their cultural co-operation, inter alia through the implementation of any relevant bilateral and multilateral agreements concluded among them in the various fields of culture.

(48) They will encourage non-governmental organizations interested in the field of culture to participate, together with State institutions, in the elaboration and implementation of these agreements and specific projects, as well as in the elaboration of practical measures concerning cultural exchange and co-operation.

(49) They will favour the establishment, by mutual agreement, of cultural institutes or centres of other participating States on their territory. Unhindered access by the public to such institutes or centres as well as their normal functioning win be assured.

(50) They will assure unhindered access by the public to cultural events organized on their territory by persons or institutions from other participating States and ensure that the organizers can use all means available in the host country to publicize such events.

(51) They will facilitate and encourage direct personal contacts in the field of culture, on both an individual and a collective basis, as well as contacts between cultural institutions, associations of creative and performing artists and other organizations in order to increase the opportunities for their citizens to acquaint themselves directly with the creative work in and from other participating States.

(52) They will ensure the unimpeded circulation of works of art and other cultural objects, subject only to those restrictions which are aimed at preserving their cultural heritage, are based on respect for intellectual and artistic property rights or derive from their international commitments on the circulation of cultural property.

(53) They will encourage co-operation between and joint artistic endeavours of persons from different participating States who are engaged in cultural activities; as appropriate, facilitate specific initiatives to this end by such persons, institutions and organizations and encourage the participation of young people in such initiatives. In this context they will encourage meetings and symposia, exhibitions, festivals and tours by ensembles or companies, and research and training programmes in which persons from the other participating States may also freely take part and make their contribution.

(54) The replacement of persons or groups invited to participate in a cultural activity win be exceptional and subject to prior agreement by the inviting party.

(55) They will encourage the holding of film weeks including, as appropriate, meetings of artists and experts as well as lectures on cinematographic art; facilitate and encourage direct contacts between film directors and producers with a view to co-producing films; and encourage co-operation in the protection of film material and the exchange of technical information and publications about the cinema.

(56) They will explore the scope for computerizing bibliographies and catalogues of cultural works and productions in a standard form and disseminating them.

(57) They will encourage museums and art galleries to develop direct contacts, inter alia with a view to organizing exhibitions, including loans of works of art, and exchanging catalogues.

(58) They will renew their efforts to give effect to the provisions of the Final Act and the Madrid Concluding Document relating to less widely spoken languages. They will also encourage initiatives aimed at increasing the number of translations of literature from and into these languages and improving their quality, in particular by the holding of workshops involving translators, authors and publishers, by the publication of dictionaries and, where appropriate, by the exchange of translators through scholarships.

(59) They will ensure that persons belonging to national minorities or regional cultures on their territories can maintain and develop their own culture in all its aspects, including language, literature and religion; and that they can preserve their cultural and historical monuments and objects.

(60) They heard accounts of the work done and the ideas advanced during the Cultural Forum held in Budapest from 15 October to 25 November 1985. Noting that no conclusions had been agreed upon at the Forum, they welcomed the fact that many of the useful ideas and proposals put forward there had received renewed consideration at the Vienna Follow-up Meeting and that institutions and organizations in the participating States have based many activities on these ideas. They expressed their appreciation of the significant contributions made to the event by leading personalities in the field of culture, and noted, in the light of the experience gained, the importance of securing, both inside and outside future meetings of this nature, arrangements which would permit a freer and more spontaneous discussion.

(61) Taking duly into account the originality and diversity of their respective cultures, they will encourage efforts to explore common features and to foster greater awareness of their cultural heritage. Accordingly they will encourage initiatives which may contribute to a better knowledge of the cultural heritage of the other participating States in all its forms, including regional aspects and folk art.

(62) They agree to convene a Symposium on the Cultural Heritage of the CSCE participating States. The Symposium will take place in Cracow from 28 May to 7 June 1991. It will be attended by scholars and other personalities from the participating States who are engaged in cultural activities. The agenda, timetable and other organizational modalities are set out in Annex IX.

Co-operation and exchanges in the field of education

(63) They will ensure access by all to the various types and levels of education without discrimination as to race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

(64) In order to encourage wider cooperation in science and education, they will facilitate unimpeded communication between universities and other institutions of higher education and research. They will also facilitate direct personal contacts, including contacts through travel, between scholars, scientists and other persons active in these fields.

(65) They will also ensure unimpeded access by scholars, teachers and students from the other participating States to open information material available in public archives, libraries, research institutes and similar bodies.

(66) They will facilitate exchanges of schoolchildren between their countries on the basis of bilateral arrangements, where necessary, including meeting and staying with families of the host country in their homes, with the aim of acquainting schoolchildren with life, traditions and education in other participating States.

(67) They will encourage their relevant government agencies or educational institutions to include, as appropriate, the Final Act as a whole in the curricula of schools and universities.

(68) They will ensure that persons belonging to national minorities or regional cultures on their territories can give and receive instruction on their own culture, including instruction through parental transmission of language, religion and cultural identity to their children.

(69) They will encourage their radio and television organizations to inform each other of the educational programmes they produce and to consider exchanging such programmes.

(70) They will encourage direct contacts and co-operation between relevant governmental institutions or organizations in the field of education and science.

(71) They will encourage further cooperation and contacts between specialized institutions and experts in the field of education and rehabilitation of handicapped children.

HUMAN DIMENSION OF THE CSCE

The participating States,

Recalling the undertakings entered into in the Final Act and in other CSCE documents concerning respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms, human contacts and other issues of a related humanitarian character,

Recognizing the need to improve the implementation of their CSCE commitments and their co-operation in these areas which are hereafter referred to as the human dimension of the CSCE,

Have, on the basis of the principles and provisions of the Final Act and of other relevant CSCE documents, decided:

1. to exchange information and respond to requests for information and to representations made to them by other participating States on questions relating to the human dimension of the CSCE. Such communications may be forwarded through diplomatic channels or be addressed to any agency designated for these purposes;

2. to hold bilateral meetings with other participating States that so request, in order to examine questions relating to the human dimension of the CSCE, including situations and specific cases, with a view to resolving them. The date and place of such meetings will be arranged by mutual agreement through diplomatic channels;

3. that any participating State which deems it necessary may bring situations and cases in the human dimension of the CSCE, including those which have been raised it the bilateral meetings described in paragraph 2, to the attention of other participating States through diplomatic channels;

4. that any participating State which deems it necessary may provide information on the exchanges of information and the responses to its requests for information and to representations (paragraph 1) and on the results of the bilateral meetings (paragraph 2), including information concerning situations and specific cases, at the meetings of the Conference on the Human Dimension as well as at the main CSCE Follow-up Meeting.

The participating States decide further to convene a Conference on the Human Dimension of the CSCE in order to achieve further progress concerning respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms, human contacts and other issues of a related humanitarian character. The Conference will hold three meetings before the next CSCE Follow-up Meeting.

The Conference will:

– review developments in the human dimension of the CSCE including the implementation of the relevant CSCE commitments;

– evaluate the functioning of the procedures described in paragraphs 1 to 4 and discuss the information provided according to paragraph 4,

– consider practical proposals for new measures aimed at improving the implementation of the commitments relating to the human dimension of the CSCE and enhancing the effectiveness of the procedures described in paragraphs 1 to 4.

On the basis of these proposals, the Conference will consider adopting new measures.

The first Meeting of the Conference will be held in Paris from 30 May to 23 June 1989.

The second Meeting of the Conference will be held in Copenhagen from 5 to 29 June 1990.

The third Meeting of the Conference will be held in Moscow from 10 September to 4 October 1991.

The agenda, timetable and other organizational modalities are set out in Annex X.

The next main CSCE Follow-up Meeting, to be held in Helsinki, commencing on 24 March 1992, will assess the functioning of the procedures set out in paragraphs 1 to 4 above and the progress made at the Meetings of the Conference on the Human Dimension of the CSCE. It will consider ways of further strengthening and improving these procedures and will take appropriate decisions.

FOLLOW-UP TO THE CONFERENCE

In conformity with the relevant provisions of the Final Act and with their resolve and commitment to continue the multilateral process initiated by the CSCE, the participating States will hold further meetings regularly among their representatives.

The fourth main Follow-up Meeting will be held in Helsinki, commencing on 24 March 1992.

The agenda, work programme and modalities of the main Vienna Meeting will be applied mutatis mutandis to the main Helsinki Meeting, unless other decisions on these questions are taken by the preparatory meeting mentioned below.

For the purpose of making the adjustments to the agenda, work programme and modalities applied at the main Vienna Meeting, a preparatory meeting will be held in Helsinki, commencing on 10 March 1992. It is understood that in this context adjustments concern those items requiring change as a result of the change in date and place, the drawing of lots, and the mention of the other meetings held in conformity with the decisions of the Vienna Meeting 1986. The duration of the preparatory meeting shall not exceed two weeks.

The agenda, work programme and modalities for CSCE follow-up meetings mentioned in this document have been prepared by the main Vienna Meeting. The results of these meetings will be taken into account, as appropriate, at the main Helsinki Meeting.

All the meetings referred to in this Chapter will be held in conformity with Paragraph 4 of the Chapter on “Follow-up to the Conference’ of the Final Act.

The participating States examined the scope for rationalizing the modalities for future CSCE follow-up meetings, for enhancing their effectiveness and for ensuring the best possible use of resources. In the light of their examination and in connection with the steps taken at the main Vienna Meeting, including the drawing up of mandates annexed to this document, they decided:

– to dispense with preparatory meetings unless otherwise agreed;

– bearing in mind the purpose of the meeting, to limit the number of subsidiary working bodies meeting simultaneously to the lowest possible;

– to limit the duration of meetings, unless otherwise agreed, to a period not exceeding four weeks;

– in the case of meetings to which non-governmental participants are invited to contribute, to make maximum use of the possibility of having informal meetings in order to allow for a more spontaneous discussion;

– to observe to the same extent as the host country its national day.

The main Helsinki Meeting will review these arrangements and other modalities in the light of experience, with a view to making any improvements which may be necessary.

The Government of Austria is requested to transmit the present document to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, to the Director General of UNESCO and to the Executive Secretary of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe and to other international organizations mentioned in this document. The Government of Austria is also requested to transmit the present document to the Governments of the non-participating Mediterranean States.

The text of this document will be published in each participating State, which will disseminate it and make it known as widely as possible.

The representatives of the participating States express their profound gratitude to the people and Government of Austria for the excellent organization of the Vienna Meeting and the warm hospitality extended to the delegations which participated in the Meeting.

Vienna, 15 January 1989

ANNEX IAGENDA, TIMETABLE AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONAL MODALITIESOF THE MEETING OF EXPERTS ON PEACEFUL SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES

I. AGENDA

1. Formal opening of the Meeting. Address by a representative of the host country.

2. General exchange of views.

3. Examination of proposals submitted.

4. Preparation and adoption of the report of the Meeting.

5. Formal closure of the Meeting.

II. TIMETABLE AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONAL MODALITIES

1. The Meeting will open on Tuesday, 15 January 1991 at 10.30 a.m., in Valletta. It will close not later than Friday, 8 February 1991.

2. Participants may circulate written proposals or other contributions prior to the Meeting through diplomatic channels or through the Executive Secretary to all other participating States in order to allow for a thorough preparation of the Meeting.

3. The timetable of the Meeting win be the following.

– from Tuesday, 15 January to Thursday, 17 January 1991, the Meeting will deal with Agenda item 2;

– from Friday, 18 January to Friday, 8 February 1991, the Meeting will deal with Agenda items 3, 4 and 5.

4. The Chair at the opening and closing meetings will be taken by a representative of the host country. After the opening meeting, the Chair will be taken in daily rotation, in French alphabetical order, starting with a representative of Italy.

5. In conformity with paragraph 74 of the Final Recommendations of the Helsinki Consultations, the Government of Malta will designate an Executive Secretary. This designation will be subject to approval by the participating States.

6. The other rules of procedure, the working methods and the scale of distribution of the expenses of the CSCE will, mutatis mutandis, be applied to the Meeting.

ANNEX II

CHAIRMAN’S STATEMENTNEGOTIATIONS ON CONFIDENCE- AND SECURITY-BUILDING MEASURES

With reference to the provision that the decisions of the Preparatory Meeting held in Helsinki from 25 October to 11 November 1983 will be applied mutatis mutandis to the Negotiations on Confidence- and Security-building Measures, which will take place according to the relevant provisions of the subchapter “Confidence- and Security-building Measures and certain Aspects of Security and Disarmament in Europe”, it is understood that

– the meetings of the Plenary during the first two weeks will be held according to the work programme attached to this statement. The first Plenary will be held on 9 March 1989 at 10.30 a.m. The first session will end on 23 March 1989,

– subsequent work programmes win be adopted by the Plenary,

– in conformity with the rules of procedure, the Government of Austria will designate an Executive Secretary, the designation being subject to approval by the participating States,

– the Chair at the first Plenary meeting will be taken by the representative of the host country and thereafter in daily rotation, in French alphabetical order, starting with the representative of Greece.

This statement will be an Annex to the Concluding Document of the Vienna Meeting and will be published with it.

ANNEX III

CHAIRMAN’S STATEMENT

NEGOTIATION ON CONVENTIONAL ARMED FORCES IN EUROPE

It is understood that the following mandate has been agreed by the States participating in the future Negotiation on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe:

“MANDATE FOR NEGOTIATION ON CONVENTIONAL ARMED FORCES*IN EUROPE

The representatives of Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, the German Democratic Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Turkey, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom and the United States of America held consultations in Vienna from 17 February 1987 to 10 January 1989.

These States,

Conscious of the common responsibility which they all have for seeking to achieve greater stability and security in Europe;

Acknowledge that it is their armed forces which bear most immediately on the essential security relationship in Europe, in particular as they are signatories of the Treaties of Brussels (1948), Washington (1949) or Warsaw (1955), and accordingly are members of the North Atlantic Alliance or parties to the Warsaw Treaty;

Recalling that they are all participants in the CSCE process;

Recalling that, as reaffirmed in the Helsinki Final Act, they have the right to belong or not to belong to international organizations, to be or not to be a party to bilateral or multilateral treaties including the right to be or not to be a party to treaties of alliance;

Determined that a Negotiation on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe should take place in the framework of the CSCE process;

Reaffirming also that they participate in negotiations as sovereign and independent States and on the basis of full equality;

Have agreed on the following provisions:

Participants

The participants in this negotiation shall be the 23 above-listed States hereinafter referred to as “the participants”.

Objectives and Methods

The objectives of the negotiation shall be to strenghten stability and security in Europe through the establishment of a stable and secure balance of conventional armed forces, which include conventional armaments and equipment, at lower levels; the elimination of disparities prejudicial to stability and security; and the elimination, as a matter of priority, of the capability for launching surprise attack and for initiating large-scale offensive action. Each and every participant undertakes to contribute to the attainment of these objectives.

_________________

* Conventional Armed Forces include conventional armaments and equipment.

ANNEX III

These objectives shall be achieved by the application of militarily significant measures such as reductions, limitations, redeployment provisions, equal ceilings, and related measures, among others.

In order to achieve the above objectives, measures should be pursued for the whole area of application with provisions, if and where appropriate, for regional differentiation to redress disparities within the area of application and in a way which precludes circumvention.

The process of strengthening stability and security should proceed step-by-step, in a manner which will ensure that the security of each participant is not affected adversely at any stage.

Scope and Ares of Application

The subject of the negotiation shall be the conventional armed forces, which include conventional armaments and equipment, of the participants based on land within the territory of the participants in Europe from the Atlantic to the Urals.

The existence of multiple capabilities will not be a criterion for modifying the scope of the negotiation:

– No conventional armaments or equipment will be excluded from the subject of the negotiation because they may have other capabilities in addition to conventional ones. Such armaments or equipment will not be singled out in a separate category;

– Nuclear weapons will not be a subject of this negotiation.

Particular emphasis will initially be placed on those forces directly related to the achievement of the objectives of the negotiation set out above.

Naval forces and chemical weapons will not be addressed.

The area of application* shall be the entire land territory of the participants in Europe from the Atlantic to the Urals, which includes all the European island territories of the participants. In the case of the Soviet Union the area of application includes all the territory lying west of the Ural River and the Caspian Sea. In the case of Turkey the area of application includes the territory of Turkey north and west of the following fine: the point of intersection of the border with the 39th parallel, Muradiye, Patnos, Karayazi, Tekman, Kemaliye, Feke, Ceyhan, Dogankent, Gozne and thence to the sea.

Exchange of Information and Verification

Compliance with the provisions of any agreement shall be verified through an effective and strict verification regime which, among other things, will include on-site inspections as a matter of right and exchanges of information.

Information shall be exchanged in sufficient detail so as to allow a meaningful comparison of the capabilities of the forces involved. Information shall also be exchanged in sufficient detail so as to provide a basis for the verification of compliance.

The specific modalities for verification and the exchange of information, including the degree of detail of the information and the order of its exchange, shall be agreed at the negotiation proper.

Procedures and Other Arrangements

The procedures for the negotiation, including the agenda, work programme and timetable, working methods, financial issues and other organisational modalities, as agreed by the participants themselves, are set out in Annex 1 of this mandate. They can be changed only by consensus of the participants.

_____________________

* The participants will be guided by the language on non-circumvention as set out in the section on Objectives and Methods.

ANNEX III

The participants decided to take part in meetings of the States signatories of the Helsinki Final Act to be held at least twice during each round of the Negotiation on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe in order to exchange views and substantive information concerning the course of the Negotiation on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe. Detailed modalities for these meetings are contained in Annex 2 to this mandate.

The participants will take into consideration the views expressed in such meetings by other CSCE participating States concerning their own security.

Participants will also provide information bilaterally.

The participants undertake to inform the next CSCE Follow-up Meeting of their work and possible results and to exchange views, at that meeting, with the other CSCE participating States on progress achieved in the negotiation.

The participants foresee that, in the light of circumstances at the time, they will provide in their timetable for a temporary suspension to permit this exchange of views. The appropriate time and duration of this suspension is their sole responsibility.

Any modification of this mandate is the sole responsibility of the participants, whether they modify it themselves or concur in its modification at a future CSCE Follow-up Meeting.

The results of the negotiation will be determined only by the participants.

Character of Agreements

Agreements reached shall be internationally binding. Modalities for their entry into force will be decided at the negotiation.

Venue

The negotiation shall commence in Vienna no later than in the seventh week following the closure of the Vienna CSCE Meeting.

* * *

The representatives of the 23 participants, whose initials appear below, have concluded the foregoing mandate, which is equally authentic in the English, French, German, Italian, Russian and Spanish languages.

The representatives, recalling the commitment of their States to the achievement of a balanced outcome at the Vienna CSCE Meeting, have decided to transmit it to that Meeting with the recommendation that it be attached to its Concluding Document.

Palais Liechtenstein

Vienna, Austria,

the 10th day of January 1989

Here appear the initials of the representatives of Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, the German Democratic Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Turkey, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom and the United States of America.

ANNEX III

ANNEX 1

PROCEDURES FOR THE NEGOTIATION ON CONVENTIONAL ARMED FORCESIN EUROPE

The representatives of the 23 States listed in the mandate, hereinafter referred to as “the participants”, held consultations in Vienna from 17 February 1987 to 10 January 1989, and agreed on the following procedural arrangements for the conduct of the Negotiation on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe.

These procedural arrangements have been adopted by the consensus of the participants. They can be changed only by consensus of the participants.

I. Agenda

1. Formal opening.

2. Negotiations, including presentation of proposals by the participants, elaboration of measures and procedures for their implementation, in accordance with the provisions of the mandate of the Negotiation on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe.

II. Work Programme

The first plenary of the Negotiation on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe will open in Vienna at 3 p.m. on the Thursday of the week referred to in the section of the mandate on Venue. A work programme for the meetings of the plenary during the first fourteen days of the round is attached. Thereafter, the plenary will agree further work programmes for the remainder of the first round, and for subsequent rounds. A decision on the date for conclusion of the round will be taken at the first plenary.

In 1989, there will in principle be four rounds.

The participants will, in setting their timetable, take due account of the practical needs of all delegations, including those participating in other negotiations within the framework of the CSCE process.

III. Working Methods

With the exception of the formal opening, all business under the agenda will-unless otherwise agreed-be dealt with in closed plenary and in such subsidiary working bodies as are established by the plenary. The work of such subsidiary bodies will be guided by the plenary.

Decisions shall be taken by consensus of the participants. Consensus shall be understood to mean the absence of any objection by any participant to the taking of the decision in question.

The proceedings of the negotiation shall be confidential unless otherwise agreed at the negotiation.

ANNEX III

Unless otherwise agreed, only accredited representatives of the participants shall have access to meetings.

During the plenary meetings all participants shall be seated in the French alphabetical order.

IV. Languages

The official languages of the negotiation shall be: English, French, German, Italian, Russian and Spanish. Statements made in any of these languages shall be interpreted into the other official languages.

V. Role of the Chairman

The chairman of the first plenary will be the representative of Poland. The chair thereafter will rotate weekly according to the French alphabetical order.

The chairman of each meeting shall keep a list of speakers and may declare it closed with the consent of the meeting. The chairman shall, however, accord the right of reply to any representative if a speech made following closure of the list makes this desirable.

If any representative raises a point of order during a discussion, the chairman shall give that representative the floor immediately. A representative raising a point of order may not speak on the substance of the matter under discussion.

The chairman shall keep a journal which shall record the date of the plenary, and the names of the chairman of the plenary and of speakers in the plenary. The journal shall be handed from chairman to chairman. It shall be made available only to participants.

VI. Decisions, Interpretative Statements, and Proposalsand Related Documents on Matters of Substance

Decisions on matters of substance shall be attached to the journal. Interpretative statements, if any, shall be attached to the journal at the request of the originator.

Formal proposals and related documents on matters of substance and amendments thereto shall be submitted in writing to the chairman and shall be registered at the request of the originator. They shall be circulated in writing to the participants.

VII. Financial Issues

The following scale of distribution has been agreed for the common expenses of the negotiation subject to the reservation that the distribution in question concerns only this negotiation and shall not be considered a precedent which could be relied on in other circumstances:

9.95% for France, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, United Kingdom, United States of America

6.25% for Canada

5.0% for Spain

ANNEX III

3.85% for Belgium, German Democratic Republic, Netherlands, Poland

2.25% for Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Hungary, Norway

0.85% for Greece, Romania, Turkey

0.65% for Bulgaria, Luxembourg, Portugal

0.15% for Iceland

Payment of contributions by the participants shall be made into a special account of the negotiation. Accounts shall be rendered by the host country in respect of each round or at intervals of 3 months, as appropriate. Accounts shall be expressed in the currency of the host country and shall be rendered as soon as technically possible after the termination of a billing period. Accounts shall be payable within 60 days of presentation in the currency of the host country.

VIII. Host Country Support

The government of Austria shall provide security and other necessary support services for the negotiation.

The host country shall be asked to appoint an administrator, agreed by the participants, to make and manage arrangements for the negotiation. The administrator shall be a national of the host country. The task of the administrator shall include, in liaison with the appropriate host country authorities:

a. to arrange accreditation for the participants,

b. to manage the facilities of the negotiation,

c. to ensure the security of, and control access to, the facilities and meetings,

d. to employ and manage interpretation staff,

e. to make available appropriate technical equipment,

f. to ensure the availability of translation services in all official languages; the practical arrangements for their use being agreed at the negotiation,

g. to deal with financial matters,

h. to make available to participants as necessary facilities for press briefings and to arrange appropriate media accreditation.

The administrator shall act at all times in conformity with these rules of procedure Liaison between the administrator and the plenary will be effected by the chairman.

ANNEX III

ANNEX 2

MODALITIES FOR MEETINGS TO EXCHANGE VIEWS AND INFORMATIONCONCERNING THE COURSE OF THE NEGOTIATION ON CONVENTIONALARMED FORCES IN EUROPE

The participants have, for their part, agreed the following modalities for the meetings which are to be held between participants in the Negotiation on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe and other CSCE participating States.

Unless otherwise agreed, meetings will take place at least twice in the course of each round of the negotiation.

Meetings will not be extended beyond the day on which they convene, unless otherwise agreed.

The chair at the first meeting will be taken by the delegation chosen for this purpose by lot. The chair will then rotate among the 35 States represented in alphabetical order according to the French alphabet.

Further practical arrangements may, if necessary, be agreed by consensus, taking due regard of relevant precedents.

ANNEX III

Statement of the Representative of Denmark

On behalf of the government of Denmark, I wish to confirm that the Faroe Islands are included in the area of application for the Negotiation on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe.

Statement of the Representative of Norway

On behalf of the government of Norway, I confirm that Svalbard including Bear Island, is included in the area of application for the Negotiation on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe.

Statement of the Representative of Portugal

The islands of Azores and Madeira have by right the status of European Islands. It has been agreed in the mandate that all the European island territories of the participants are included in the area of application. I can therefore state on behalf of my government that the Azores and Madeira are within the area of application for the Negotiation on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe.

Statement of the Representative of Spain

On behalf of the government of Spain, I confirm that the Canary Islands are included in the area of application for the Negotiation on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe.

Statement of the Representative of the Union of Soviet Social Republics

On behalf of the government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, I confirm that Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya are included in the area of application for the Negotiation on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe.”

This statement will be an Annex to the Concluding Document of the Vienna Meeting and will be published with it.

ANNEX IV

CHAIRMAN’S STATEMENT

MEETINGS IN ORDER TO EXCHANGE VIEWS AND INFORMATION CONCERNINGTHE COURSE OF THE NEGOTIATION ON CONVENTIONAL ARMED FORCES IN EUROPE

The meetings to exchange views and information concerning the course of the Negotiation on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe will, unless otherwise agreed, be held as follows:

– on the second Tuesday of each session of the Negotiation on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe,

– on every fourth Tuesday thereafter unless it happens to be in the penultimate week of the session,

– on the Tuesday of the concluding week of each session.

Consequently, the first meeting will take place on 21 March 1989. It will commence at 10.30 a.m.

These meetings will not be extended beyond the day on which they convene, unless otherwise agreed.

The Chair will be taken in daily rotation, in French alphabetical order, starting with the representative of Sweden.

Further practical arrangements related to the procedure and working methods may, if necessary, be agreed to accord with the rules of procedure of the CSCE.

This statement will be an Annex to the Concluding Document of the Vienna Meeting and will be published with it.

ANNEX V

CONFERENCE ON ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION IN EUROPE

I. AGENDA

1. Formal opening. Address by a representative of the host country.

2. Statements by delegations of the participating States.

3. Contributions by the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) and the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC).

4. Consideration of the following items:

A. Development and diversification of economic relations through practical measures regarding:

(a) Business contacts

(b) Working conditions for businesspeople

(c) Economic and commercial information

(d) Role of small and medium-sized enterprises

(e) Marketing and product promotion.

B. Industrial co-operation:

Requirements for the establishment and operation, on a mutually advantageous basis, of joint ventures and other forms of industrial co-operation such as co-production, specialization and licensing.

(a) Economic conditions and legal and administrative aspects

(b) Investment-related matters.

C. Co-operation in specific areas:

(a) Energy and raw material saving techniques

(b) Equipment for environmental protection

(c) Techniques aimed at improving the quality of life

(d) Agro-industry and food processing, including natural food production

(e) Machinery for the production of durable and non-durable consumer goods

(f) Urban development and town planning.

D. Monetary and financial aspects of commercial exchanges and industrial co-operation, such as:

(a) Currency convertibility and pricing, and their effects on international competition

(b) Financial instruments and other support facilities offered by the financial services sector.

5. Concluding discussion and summing up.

6. Formal closure.

ANNEX V

II. ORGANIZATIONAL FRAMEWORK AND OTHER MODALITIES

1. The Conference will be attended by delegations, which may include businesspeople and representatives of relevant organizations and institutions, from the participating States. At the concluding Plenary meetings, in the fourth week, delegations may also include leading members of the business community and of relevant organizations and institutions. The Conference will open on 19 March 1990, at 3 p.m., in Bonn. It will close on 11 April 1990.

2. The ECE and the ICC are invited to attend the Conference.

3. All Plenary meetings will be open. Unless otherwise agreed, all meetings of Subsidiary Working Bodies will be open.

4. Agenda items 1, 5 and 6 will be dealt with in the Plenary. Agenda item 4 will be dealt with in the Plenary and in the Subsidiary Working Bodies (SWBs), in a balanced and structured way. Contributions under Agenda items 2 and 3 may be made both in the Plenary and in the SWBs.

5. Subsidiary Working Bodies A, B, C and D will be set up and will deal with Agenda item 4, in the following manner:

SWB A: Development and diversification of economic relations through practical measures regarding:

– Business contacts

– Working conditions for businesspeople

– Economic and commercial information

– Role of small and medium-sized enterprises

SWB B: Industrial co-operation:

Requirements for the establishment and operation, on a mutually advantageous basis, of joint ventures and other forms of industrial co-operation such as co-production, specialization and licensing:

– Economic conditions and legal and administrative aspects

– Investment-related matters

– Marketing and product promotion

SWB C: Co-operation in specific areas:

– Energy and raw material saving techniques

– Equipment for environmental protection

– Techniques aimed at improving the quality of life

– Agro-industry and food processing, including natural food production

– Machinery for the production of durable and non-durable consumer goods

– Urban development and town planning

SWB D: Monetary and financial aspects of commercial exchanges and industrial co-operation, such as:

– Currency convertibility and pricing, and their effects on international competition

– Financial instruments and other support facilities offered by the financial

services sector.

ANNEX V

6. The Plenary will decide upon working methods which may be required to deal with the specific topics of Agenda item 4 and with Agenda item 5.

7. Sessions of the Plenary and of the Subsidiary Working Bodies will be held according to the attached work programme.

8. The Chair at the opening and closing Plenary sessions will be taken by a representative of the host country. After the opening session, the Chair will be taken in daily rotation, in French alphabetical order, starting with a representative of Austria.

9. The Chair at the opening meetings of the SWBs will be taken by a representative of the host country. Selection of the next Chairman will be by lot. The Chair will then be taken in daily rotation among the representatives of the participating States in French alphabetical order.

10. In conformity with paragraph 74 of the Final Recommendations of the Helsinki Consultations, the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany will designate an Executive Secretary. This esignation will be subject to approval by the participating States.

11. The other rules of procedure, the working methods and the scale of distribution of expenses of the SCE will, mutatis mutandis, be applied to the Conference.

ANNEX VI

MEETING ON THE PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT

A. AGENDA

1. Formal opening of the Meeting. Address by a representative of the host country.

2. Opening statements by representatives of the participating States.

3. Contributions by the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN).

4. Review of the work already done, or currently under way, in the fields of:

(a) prevention and control of the transboundary effects of industrial accidents;

(b) management of potentially hazardous chemicals;

(c) pollution of transboundary watercourses and international lakes.

5. In the light of Agenda item 4, examination of possibilities for further measures and co-operation, including improved exchange of information. The discussion will focus on legal, practical, technical and technological aspects, as well as on educational matters and public awareness.

6. Drawing up of conclusions and recommendations.

7. Closing statements.

8. Formal closure.

B. ORGANIZATIONAL FRAMEWORK AND OTHER MODALITIES

1. The Meeting will open on 16 October 1989 at 10.30 a.m., in Sofia. It will close on 3 November 1989.

2. The ECE, UNEP and IUCN will be invited to attend the Meeting.

3. All Plenary meetings will be open.

4. Agenda items 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8 will be dealt with in the Plenary.

5. Agenda item 5 will be dealt with in the Plenary and in two Subsidiary Working Bodies (SWBs), which will cover the fields mentioned in Agenda item 4, in a balanced and structured way, as follows:

– a general debate, including an exchange of views on educational matters and public awareness, will be held in the Plenary to initiate the work of the Subsidiary Working Bodies;

– SWB I will deal with the legal, administrative and practical aspects of issues such as liability and restoration, systems of alert, assistance upon request, preventive measures, information flows and consultations;

– SWB II will deal with the scientific, technical and technological aspects of issues such as preventive measures, risk assessment, assessment of damage, clean-up, measurement and monitoring;

– the SWBs I and II will submit their reports to the Plenary.

ANNEX VI

6. The timetable of the Meeting will be the

– from 16 to 19 October 1989 the Plenary will deal with Agenda items 1, 2, 3, 4 and the general debate related to Agenda item 5;

– from 19 October to 1 November 1989 the two SWBs will meet to deal with Agenda item 5;

– from 1 to 3 November 1989 the Plenary will consider reports by the SWBs and on this basis draw up conclusions and recommendations in the three fields listed in Agenda item 4, as provided for under Agenda item 6.

7. Prior to the Meeting, the participating States and international organizations attending are invited to circulate written contributions, through diplomatic channels or through the Executive Secretary, to all participating States in order to allow thorough preparation of the Meeting.

8. Meetings of the Plenary and the SWBs will be held according to the attached work programme.

9. The Chair at the opening and closing Plenary meetings will be taken by a representative of the host country. After the opening meeting, the Chair will be taken in daily rotation, in French alphabetical order starting with a representative of Turkey.

10. The Chair at the opening meetings of the SWBs will be taken by a representative of the host country. Selection of the next Chairman will be by lot. The Chair will then be taken in daily rotation among the representatives of the participating States in French alphabetical order.

11. In conformity with paragraph 74 of the Final Recommendations of the Helsinki Consultations, the Government of the host country will designate an Executive Secretary. This designation will be subject to approval by the participating States.

12. The other rules of procedure, the working methods and the scale of distribution of the expenses of the CSCE will, mutatis mutandis, be applied to the Meeting.

ANNEX VII

MEETING ON THE MEDITERRANEAN

I. AGENDA

1. Formal opening of the Meeting. Address by a representative of the host country.

2. Opening statements by representatives of the participating States, the non-participating Mediterranean States, and the international organizations invited; opening statements should, as a rule, not exceed 15 minutes per delegation.

3. Exchange of views on issues raised in opening statements, taking into consideration the provisions of the Mediterranean chapters of the Final Act and the Madrid Concluding Document, and review of the existing practice of contacts and co-operation with the nonparticipating Mediterranean States.

4. Specific aspects of co-operation:

– examination of the opportunities offered to contribute to the faster social and economicdevelopment of the countries of the region, in particular those which are developing from an economic point of view;

– examination of possibilities for the harmonization of statistical methods;

– encouragement of contacts at various levels (expert meetings, round tables, study visits) with a view to contributing to the implementation of concrete programmes for co-operation;

– co-operation in the field of solar and wind energy,

– consideration of questions relating to the conservation and restoration of historic centres and the preservation of cultured heritage including marine archaeology.

5. Protection of Mediterranean ecosystems:

– urban, agricultural and industrial water uses and requirements in the Mediterranean countries;

– pollution of surface and underground water and of the Mediterranean Sea;

– national, bilateral and international action to control and prevent pollution by national and transboundary waterways flowing into the Mediterranean and pollution by ships;

– recycling of waste water and the use of other new technologies to obtain water resources;

– desertification and the struggle against it, including parameters and techniques; initiatives in international co-operation in this field; the role of forest conservation and reforestation;

ANNEX VII

– international co-operation in the Mediterranean in preventing and extinguishing forest fires; the role of meteorology and communication networks; traditional and other techniques in the struggle against forest fires, including the use and international coordination of aerial means, land techniques, and standardization of fire-fighting methods; information and awareness campaigns;

– atmospheric problems, in particular air quality in urban centres and the effects of air pollution on historical monuments and biological ecosystems; typical sources of air pollution in Mediterranean countries and Mediterranean share in long-range air pollution;

– the biosphere and related questions of ecology and human activities; nature conservation; study of coastal and island areas including urban development;

– environmental aspects of the development of tourism;

– review and improvement of exchanges of information relating to the protection of the environment.

6. Elaboration and adoption of the report of the Meeting, including conclusions and recommendations based on the reports of the Subsidiary Working Bodies.

7. Closing statements, address by a representative of the host country and formal closure of the Meeting.

II. ORGANIZATIONAL FRAMEWORK AND OTHER MODALITIES

1. The Meeting will open on Monday, 24 September 1990, at 3 p.m., in Palma de Mallorca; it will close not later than Friday, 19 October 1990.

2. Agenda items 1, 2, 3 and 7 will be dealt with in open Plenary.

3. Agenda item 6 will be dealt with in closed Plenary by the participating States.

4. Agenda item 4 will be dealt with in Subsidiary Working Body (SWB) I.

5. Agenda item 5 will be dealt with in SWB II.

6. The timetable of the Meeting will be the following:

– from Monday, 24 September to Wednesday, 26 September, the Plenary will deal with Agenda items 1 and 2;

– on Thursday, 27 September and Friday, 28 September, the Plenary will deal with Agenda item 3;

– from Monday, 1 October, to Tuesday, 16 October, the two SWBs will meet alternately to deal with Agenda items 4 and 5;

– Tuesday, 16 October, will be devoted to the adoption of reports by the SWBs for submission to the Plenary,

– on Wednesday, 17 October, and Thursday, 18 October, the Plenary will deal with Agenda item 6;

– on Friday, 19 October, the Plenary will deal with Agenda item 7.

7. Meetings of the Plenary and of the SWBs will be held according to the work programme set forth on page 5 of this Annex.

  1. Participants may circulate written contributions prior to the Meeting through diplomatic channels or through the Executive Secretary to all other participating States in order to allow a thorough preparation of the Meeting.
  2. ANNEX VII

9. The Chair at the opening and closing Plenary meetings will be taken by a representative of the host country After the opening meeting, the Chair will be taken in daily rotation among the representatives of the participating States, in French alphabetical order, starting with a representative of Italy.

10. The Chair at the opening meetings of the SWBs will be taken by a representative of the host country. Selection of the next Chairman will be by lot. The Chair will then be taken in daily rotation among the representatives of the participating States in French alphabetical order.

11. Opening statements under Agenda item 2 will be made in the following order: Liechtenstein, Cyprus, the United States of America, Italy, Norway, Bulgaria, the Netherlands, Turkey, the Holy See, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Canada, Austria, Finland, Luxembourg, Malta, Belgium, Romania, the German Democratic Republic, Iceland, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden, Yugoslavia, Spain, Hungary, Denmark, Czechoslovakia, San Marino the United Kingdom, Monaco, Ireland, Greece, Portugal, Switzerland,

12. In conformity with paragraph 74 of the Final Recommendations of the Helsinki Consultations, the Government of Spain will designate an Executive Secretary. This designation will be subject to the agreement of the participating States.

13. The other rules of procedure, the working methods, and the scale of distribution of the expenses of the CSCE will, mutatis mutandis, be applied to the Meeting.

ANNEX VIII

AGENDA, TIMETABLE AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONALMODALLITIES OF THE INFORMATION FORUM

I. AGENDA

1. Formal opening of the Information Forum. Address by a representative of the host country.

2. Opening statements by representatives of the participating States; contributions by UNESCO and by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).

3. Discussion of current and possible future problems and issues concerning

– the improvement of the circulation of, access to and exchange of information;

– co-operation in the field of information;

– the improvement of working conditions for journalists.

In dealing with these three main areas of the Final Act, the participants in the Information Forum, drawing on their professional experience, will review the present situation on the basis of the relevant CSCE provisions with the aim of indicating any necessary improvements or possible new developments in those fields. In so doing they will take into account the fields of oral information, printed information and filmed and broadcast information, as well as the aim, as laid down in the Final Act, to facilitate the freer and wider dissemination of information of all kinds, thus contributing to an ever wider knowledge and understanding of fife in other participating States. Particular attention will also be paid to the latest achievements in the field of information gathering and transmission, including the prospects offered by new information and communication technology.

4. Closing statements by representatives of the participating States.

5. Formal closure of the Information Forum.

II. TIMETABLE AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONAL MODALITIES

1. The Information Forum will open on Tuesday, 18 April 1989, at 10.30 a.m., in London. It will close on Friday, 12 May 1989.

2. All Plenary meetings will be open.

3. Agenda items 1, 2, 4 and 5 will be dealt with in the Plenary.

4. Agenda item 3 will be dealt with in three Subsidiary Working Bodies, one on Printed Information (SWB A), one on Filmed, Broadcast and Oral Information (SWB B) and one on Communication (SWB C), in a structured and balanced way. Possible themes for discussion in the Subsidiary Working Bodies are set out below. Agenda item 3 win also be dealt with in the Plenary sessions which are not devoted to Agenda items 1, 2, 4 and 5.

ANNEX VIII

5. The timetable of the Forum will be the following.

– The first three days will be devoted, as required, to opening statements by representatives of those participating States which so desire and to the contributions by UNESCO and by ITU. The opening statements should, as a rule, not exceed 20 minutes per delegation and will be held in the following order. the German Democratic Republic, Iceland, Luxembourg, Finland, Greece, Belgium, Portugal, Spain, Italy, the Holy See, Bulgaria, the Netherlands, France, Malta, Czechoslovakia, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Turkey, Denmark, San Marino, Norway, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Romania, Switzerland, Austria, Canada, the United States of America, Yugoslavia, Liechtenstein, the Federal Republic of Germany, Poland, Hungary, Cyprus, Sweden, Monaco.

– Beginning on Friday, 21 April and ending on Monday, 8 May, the three Subsidiary Working Bodies will meet concurrently.

– Agenda items 4 and 5 shall be dealt with on the last three days of the Forum.

6. Participants may circulate written contributions on the subjects for consideration in one or more of the working languages of the CSCE prior to the Forum through the Executive Secretary to all other participating States in order to allow a thorough preparation of the relevant discussions.

7. If the Forum does not reach any agreed conclusions, proposals and projects submitted to the Forum will be forwarded to the next Follow-up Meeting by the Government of the host country.

8. Meetings of the Plenary and of the Subsidiary Working Bodies will be held according to the attached work programme.

9. At the opening and closing Plenary sessions, the Chair will be taken by a representative of the host country. After the opening session, the Chair will be taken in daily rotation, in French alphabetical order, starting with a representative of Sweden.

10. The Chair at the opening sessions of the Subsidiary Working Bodies will be taken by a representative of the host country. Selection of the next Chairman of each Subsidiary Working Body will be by lot. The Chair will then be taken in daily rotation in French alphabetical order.

11. In conformity with paragraph 74 of the Final Recommendations of the Helsinki Consultations, the Government of the United Kingdom will designate an Executive Secretary. This designation will be subject to approval by the participating States.

12. The other rules of procedure, the working methods and the scale of distribution of the expenses of the CSCE will, mutatis mutandis, be applied to the Forum.

ANNEX VIII

III. INDICATIVE LIST OF THEMES FOR DISCUSSION IN THE SUBSIDIARYWORKING BODIES

SWB A: Printed Information with particular reference to

– Distribution of periodicals and other publications both commercially published and official, questions relating to the import of publications.

– Access to periodicals and other publications, e.g. in reading rooms and cultural information centres.

– Questions relating to printing and publishing including access to technical means.

– Contacts and exchanges between newspapers and periodicals, exchange of newspaper subscriptions.

SWB B: Filmed, Broadcast and Oral Information with particular reference to

– Access to new means of communication, including satellite and other cross-frontier broadcasting.

– Contacts and exchanges between broadcasting companies, e.g. telebridges, joint discussion or other programmes.

– Dissemination and use of recorded audio-visual material.

– Participation in international discussion fora.

– Public lectures, exchanges of study visits between officials and non-governmental organizations.

– Press conferences.

SWB A and SWB B: Both SWBs will also deal with general considerations concerning the exercise of the profession of journalists, in particular the improvement of working conditions for journalists and media personnel, including

– The role of journalists in all its aspects.

– Facilitation of travel.

– Facilitation of access to sources.

– Respect for confidentiality of sources and materials.

– Visas/accreditation for journalists and radio/television crews.

– Possibilities for accredited correspondents to employ local nationals of their choice.

SWB C: Communication with particular reference to

– The impact on a national and international level of new production techniques and broadcasting technologies such as satellite and cable TV, telecommunications technology, use of computers, new telephonic communication.

– The legal pedagogical, cultural and social implications of current and future developments in the field of communication.

– Role of journalists in the context of such developments.

– Questions of copyright of journalists, commercial aspects.

ANNEX IX

AGENDA, TIMETABLE AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONAL MODALITIESOF THE SYMPOSIUM ON THE CULTURAL HERITAGE

I. AGENDA

1. Formal opening of the Symposium. Address by a representative of the host country.

2. Introductory statements by representatives of the participating States; contribution by UNESCO.

3. Discussion of common features of the cultural heritage of the peoples of the participating States, with due attention to the originality and diversity of their respective cultures; consideration of:

(a) scope and measures necessary for increasing awareness and expanding mutual knowledge of this heritage;

(b) scope for improving, inter alia through cooperation and joint efforts, the protection and preservation of this heritage, including historical, cultural and religious monuments and objects.

In dealing with these items, the participants in the Symposium will review the implementation of the relevant CSCE provisions, thus facilitating the identification of the scope for further action in these fields.

4. Closing statements and summing up of the results of the Symposium.

5. Formal closure of the Symposium.

II. TIMETABLE AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONAL MODALITIES

1. The Symposium will open on Tuesday, 28 May 1991, at 10.30 a.m., in Cracow. It will close on Friday, 7 June 1991.

2. All Plenary meetings win be open.

3. Under the guidance of the Plenary, Study Group A, devoted to questions related to increasing the awareness of the cultural heritage, will deal with Agenda item 3 (a) and Study Group B, devoted to the discussion of the protection and preservation of the cultural heritage, will deal with Agenda item 3 (b).

Under Agenda item 3 (a), Study Group A will discuss in particular

– sources and manifestations of the cultural heritage of the peoples of the participating States, including its contemporary aspects, and access to them;

– interrelationship between regional and other features of the cultural heritage;

– role of the sciences and humanities.

ANNEX IX

Under Agenda item 3 (b), Study Group B will discuss in particular

– implementation of co-operation programmes;

– preservation of the cultural heritage, including socio-economic aspects, and its interrelationship with the protection of the environment;

– use of modern technical methods and means in the preservation of the cultural heritage and in the dissemination of knowledge about it.

Both Study Group A and Study Group B will further deal with:

– scope for expanding contacts, communications and exchanges of information between institutions, experts and other interested persons in the field of culture;

– scope for creation, dissemination and co-operation.

4. The first one-and-a-half days of the Symposium will be devoted to Plenary meetings on Agenda items 1, 2 and 3. Introductory statements, as a rule, should not exceed 20 minutes per delegation and will be held in the following order: Poland, Spain, Norway, Hungary, the Federal Republic of Germany, San Marino, Portugal, Turkey, Ireland, Bulgaria, Austria, Monaco, Yugoslavia, Malta, Denmark, the United Kingdom, Belgium, Canada, Switzerland, Cyprus, France, the Holy See, Romania, Liechtenstein, Italy, the Netherlands, the German Democratic Republic, Finland, Greece, Luxembourg, Sweden, Iceland, Czechoslovakia, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United States of America.

The last one-and-a-half days will be devoted to Plenary meetings on Agenda items 3, 4 and 5.

The Symposium will proceed according to the attached work programme.

5. The Chair at the opening and closing meetings will be taken by a representative of the host country. After the opening Plenary meeting, the Chair at the Plenary meetings will be taken in daily rotation, in French alphabetical order, starting with a representative of Bulgaria.

The Chair at the opening sessions of the two Study Groups will be taken by a representative of the host country. Selection of the next Chairman of each Study Group will be by lot. The Chair will then be taken in daily rotation, in French alphabetical order.

6. In conformity with paragraph 74 of the Final Recommendations of the Helsinki Consultations, the Government of Poland will designate an Executive Secretary. This designation will be subject to agreement by the participating States. The services of a technical secretariat will be provided by the host country.

7. Contributions on the subjects for consideration in one or more of the working languages of the CSCE may be sent through the proper channels-preferably not later than three months before the opening of the Symposium-to the Executive Secretary, who will circulate them to the other participating States and to UNESCO.

8. If the Symposium does not reach any agreed conclusions, projects and proposals submitted to it will be forwarded by the Government of the host country to the next Follow-up Meeting.

9. The other rules of procedure the working methods and the scale of distribution of the expenses of the CSCE will, mutatis mutandis, be applied to the Symposium.

ANNEX X

AGENDA, TIMETABLE AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONAL MODALITIESOF THE MEETINGSOF THE CONFERENCE ON THE HUMAN DIMENSION OF THE CSCE

I. AGENDA

1. Formal opening. Address by a representative of the host country.

2. Opening statements by the representatives of the participating States.

3. Exchange of views on the situation in the participating States with regard to respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms, human contacts and other issues of a related humanitarian character, including the implementation of relevant CSCE commitments.

4. Evaluation of the functioning of the procedures described in paragraphs 1 to 4 and discussion of the information provided according to paragraph 4 of the section dealing with the human dimension of the CSCE in the present Concluding Document.

5. Presentation and consideration of practical proposals for new measures aimed at improving implementation of commitments and co-operation in the human dimension of the CSCE and at enhancing the effectiveness of the above-mentioned procedures.

6. Closing statements by the representatives of the participating States.

7. Formal closure of the Meeting.

II. TIMETABLE AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONAL MODALITIES

1. The first Meeting of the Conference will open on 30 May 1989 at 10.30 a.m., in Paris. It will close on 23 June 1989.

The second Meeting of the Conference will open on 5 June 1990 at 10.30 a.m., in Copenhagen. It will close on 29 June 1990.

The third Meeting of the Conference will open on 10 September 1991 at 10.30 a.m., in Moscow. It will close on 4 October 1991.

2. Agenda items 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7 will be dealt with in Plenary meetings.

3. Agenda items 4 and 5 will be dealt with in Plenary meetings and in Subsidiary Working Bodies:

Agenda item 4 will be dealt with in Subsidiary Working Body A;

Agenda item 5 will be dealt with in Subsidiary Working Body B.

4. The meetings of the Plenary will be open unless otherwise decided. The meetings of the Subsidiary Working Bodies will be closed.

  1. If it so decides in the Plenary, each Meeting may, on the basis of proposals introduced, consider elaborating and adopting new measures to be implemented upon closure of that Meeting.

ANNEX X

6. The Chair at the opening and closing Plenary meetings of each Meeting of the Conference will be taken by a representative of the host country. At the other Plenary meetings, the Chair will be taken in daily rotation, in French alphabetical order, starting at the first Meeting with a representative of the Netherlands and continuing at the two subsequent Meetings of the Conference.

7. Opening statements under Agenda item 2 will be made in the following order:

– at the first Meeting: Liechtenstein, France, the German Democratic Republic, Norway, Italy, Malta, the Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland, Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Poland, Portugal, Turkey, Denmark, Iceland, Hungary, the Federal Republic of Germany, Czechoslovakia, Spain, Sweden, Ireland, the Holy See, Yugoslavia, Finland, Austria, Monaco, Canada, the United Kingdom, Romania, Greece, the United States of America, Luxembourg, San Marino

– at the second Meeting: San Marino, Greece, Monaco, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Belgium, Turkey, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Switzerland, Iceland, the Netherlands, Finland, Luxembourg, Poland, Hungary, the United States ofAmerica, Canada, Norway, Portugal, Malta, Ireland, the Holy See, Spain, France, Sweden, the German Democratic Republic, Romania, Italy, the United Kingdom, Denmark, Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Liechtenstein

– at the third Meeting: Luxembourg, Greece, Canada, Belgium, San Marino, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Hungary, Iceland, the German Democratic Republic, Ireland, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Denmark, Malta, Sweden, Monaco, Czechoslovakia, Portugal, Poland, Austria, Cyprus, Switzerland, the Holy See, the United States of America, Spain, Italy, Liechtenstein, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Turkey, Finland, Romania, Norway

The statements, as a rule, should not exceed 20 minutes per speaker.

8. In conformity with paragraph 74 of the Final Recommendations of the Helsinki Consultations, the Governments of France, Denmark, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics will designate the Executive Secretary of the respective Meeting. This designation will be subject to agreement by the participating States.

9. The other rules of procedure, the working methods and the scale of distribution of expenses of the CSCE will, mutatis mutandis, be applied to the Meetings of the Conference.

ANNEX X

WORK PROGRAMME FOR THE FIRST MEETING OF THE CONFERENCEON THE HUMAN DIMENSION OF THE CSCE

From 30 to 31 May 1989, the Plenary will deal with Agenda items 1 and 2.

From 1 June 1989, the Plenary will deal with Agenda items 3 and 4.

From 12 June 1989, the Plenary will deal with Agenda item 5.

From 22 to 23 June 1989, the Plenary will deal with Agenda items 6 and 7.

From 6 to 14 June 1989, Subsidiary Working Body A will deal with Agenda item 4.

From 13 to 21 June 1989, Subsidiary Working Body B will deal with Agenda item 5.

ANNEX X

WORK PROGRAMME FOR THE SECOND MEETING OF THE CONFERENCEON THE HUMAN DIMENSION OF THE CSCE

From 5 to 6 June 1990, the Plenary will deal with Agenda items 1 and 2.

From 7 June 1990, the Plenary will deal with Agenda items 3 and 4.

From 18 June 1990, the Plenary will deal with Agenda item 5.

From 28 to 29 June 1990, the Plenary will deal with Agenda items 6 and 7.

From 12 to 20 June 1990, Subsidiary Working Body A will deal with Agenda item 4.

From 19 to 27 June 1990, Subsidiary Working Body B will deal with Agenda item 5.

ANNEX X

WORK PROGRAMME FOR THE THIRD MEETING OF THE CONFERENCEON THE HUMAN DIMENSION OF THE CSCE

From 10 to 11 September 1991, the Plenary will deal with Agenda items 1 and 2.

From 12 September 1991, the Plenary will deal with Agenda items 3 and 4.

From 23 September 1991, the Plenary will deal with Agenda item 5.

From 3 to 4 October 1991, the Plenary will deal with Agenda items 6 and 7.

From 17 to 25 September 1991, Subsidiary Working Body A will deal with Agenda item 4.

From 24 September to 2 October 1991, Subsidiary Working Body B will deal with Agenda item 5.

ANNEX XI

CHAIRMAN’S STATEMENT

ON THE OPENNESS AND ACCESS TO THE CSCE FOLLOW-UP MEETINGSMENTIONED IN THE VIENNA CONCLUDING DOCUMENT

The practices of openness and access to CSCE meetings based on the relevant provisions of the Final Act and applied by host countries have evolved in a positive way. These practices relate inter alia to access to the host State, to the venue and to open sessions of CSCE meetings for representatives of the media, representatives of non-governmental organizations or religious groups, and private individuals, both nationals and foreigners; unimpeded contacts between delegates or visitors and citizens of the host State, respect for CSCE-related activities, including the holding of peaceful gatherings, and for the freedom of journalists to report without hindrance as well as to pursue their professional activity in conformity with CSCE commitments. In the light of that experience, all participating States understand that Governments of host countries for the CSCE Follow-up Meetings mentioned in the Vienna Concluding Document will follow and build upon these practices as they were most recently applied at the Vienna Meeting.

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