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Perpetrators of International Crimes

Perpetrators of International Crimes

Theories, Methods, and Evidence

Edited by Alette Smeulers, Maartje Weerdesteijn, and Barbora Hola

ISBN: 9780198829997
Publicado: 07 April 2019
Páginas: 416

Why would anyone commit a mass atrocity such as genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, or terrorism? This question is at the core of the multi- and interdisciplinary field of perpetrator studies, a developing field which this book assesses in its full breadth for the first time.

Perpetrators of International Crimes analyses the most prominent theories, methods, and evidence to determine what we know, what we think we know, as well as the ethical implications of gathering this knowledge. It traces the development of perpetrator studies whilst pushing the boundaries of this emerging field. The book includes contributions from experts from a wide array of disciplines, including criminology, history, law, sociology, psychology, political science, religious studies, and anthropology. They cover numerous case studies, including prominent ones such as Nazi Germany, Rwanda, and the former Yugoslavia, but also those that are relatively under researched and more recent, such as Sri Lanka and the Islamic State. These have been investigated through various research methods, including but not limited to, trial observations and interviews.

CONTENIDO

Preface, Benjamin B. Ferencz
Introduction, Alette Smeulers, Barbora Hola, and Maartje Weerdesteijn


PART I: PERPETRATOR STUDIES
1. Historical Overview of Perpetrator Studies, Alette Smeulers
2. Theories, Methods, and Evidence, Alette Smeulers, Barbora Hola and Maartje Weerdesteijn


PART II: REFLECTING ON METHODS AND SOURCES
3. Perpetrators, Fieldwork, and Ethical Concerns, Chandra Lekha Sriram
4. Interviewing Perpetrators against the Backdrop of Ethical Concerns and Reflexivity, Mina Rauschenbach
5. Studying ‘Perpetrators’ through the Lens of the Criminal Trial, Thijs Bouwknegt and Adina-Loredana Nistor


PART III: STUDYING PERPETRATION
6. Perpetration as a Process: A Historical-Sociological Model, Ugur Ümit Üngör
7. The Margins of Perpetration: Role-Shifting in Genocide, Kjell Anderson
8. Beyond Perpetrators: Complex Political Actors surrounding the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda, Erin Jessee


PART IV: STUDYING PERPETRATORS: CASE STUDIES
9. Studying Perpetrator Ideologies in Atrocity Crimes, Jonathan Leader Maynard
10. Religion and International Crimes: the Case of the Islamic State, Pieter Nanninga
11. The Female Tigers of Sri Lanka: The Legitimation of Recruitment and Fight, Georg Frerks
12. The Rationality and Reign of Paul Kagame, Maartje Weerdesteijn


PART V: STUDYING PERPETRATORS ON TRIAL: CASE STUDIES
13. Nothing Must Remain: The (In)visibility of Atrocity Crimes and the Perpetrators’ Strategies using the Corpses of their Victims, Caroline Fournet
14. Plausible Deniability: The Challenges in Prosecuting Paramilitary Violence in the former Yugoslavia, Iva Vukusic
15. Perpetrators on Trial: Characteristics of War Crime Perpetrators Tried by Courts in Bosnia and Herzegovina & ICTY, Mirza Buljubasic and Barbora Hola
16. ‘Like Mirrors of Morality’: Social Support for Nazi War Criminals in Post-War Germany, Susanne Karstedt
Concluding Thoughts, Alette Smeulers

AUTORES

Alette Smeulers, Professor of Criminal Law and Criminology of International Crimes, University of Groningen,Maartje Weerdesteijn, Assistant Professor, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam,Barbora Hola, Senior Researcher at the Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NSCR) and Associate Professor, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

Alette Smeulers is Professor of Criminal Law and Criminology of International Crimes at the University of Groningen. She is a political scientist by training but specialized in the psychology of perpetrators and did her PhD in international criminal law. Her research focuses on the international crimes, the causes of these types of crimes, and the perpetrators of these crimes as well as the international criminal justice system. In her research she takes an inter- and multidisciplinary approach. She has published extensively on these subjects and has presented numerous papers at international conferences and at a wide range of universities in Europe and the United States.

Maartje Weerdesteijn is Assistant Professor at VU University Amsterdam and a Researcher at the Center for International Criminal Justice. She obtained a PhD from Tilburg University, Department of Criminal Law, a Master in International Crimes and Criminology from VU University Amsterdam (Cum Laude), and a Bachelor in European Studies from Maastricht University (Cum Laude). In 2014 she was a visiting scholar at Griffith University Australia at the Griffith Asia Institute. Her book The Rationality of Dictators: Towards a more effective implementation of the responsibility to protect was published by Intersentia.

Barbora Hola is Associate Professor at VU University Amsterdam and Senior Researcher at the Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NSCR). She is co-director of the Center for International Criminal Justice and co-chair of the European Society of Criminology Group on Atrocity Crimes and Transitional Justice. She has an interdisciplinary focus and studies transitional justice after atrocities, in particular (international) criminal trials, sentencing of international crimes, enforcement of internaional sentences, rehabilitation of war criminals, and life after trial at international criminal tribunals. She has published extensively on these subjects and presented at international conferences and universities in Europe, Africa, Australia, and the America’s.

Contributors:

Kjell Anderson, Affiliated Research Fellow at the Centre for International Criminal Justice at VU University Amsterdam

Thijs Bouwknegt, Researcher at the NIOD, the Institute for War, Holocaust and Genocide Studies and Assistant Professor at the University of Amsterdam

Mirza Buljubasic, Senior Teaching Assistant of Criminal Law, Criminal Procedural Law, Criminology, and International Criminal Law at the Law Faculty, University of Travnik

Benjamin B. Ferencz, former Combat Solider and Chief Prosecutor for the United States in the Einsatzgruppen case in Nuremberg in 1947-1948

Georg Frerks, Chair in Conflict Prevention and Conflict Management at Utrecht University and Chair in International Security Studies at the Netherlands Defence Academy

Caroline Fournet, Professor of Comparative Criminal Law and International Justice at the University of Groningen

Barbora Hola, Associate Professor at VU University Amsterdam and Senior Researcher at the Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NSCR)

Erin Jessee, Lord Kelvin Adam Smith Research Fellow in History at the University of Glasgow

Susanne Karstedt, Professor in the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Griffith University

Jonathan Leader Maynard, Lecturer in the Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Oxford, and Research Associate of the Oxford Institute for Ethics, Law and Armed Conflict

Pieter Nanninga, Assistant Professor of Middle Eastern Studies at the University of Groningen

Adina-Loredana Nistor, Researcher at Erasmus University Rotterdam

Mina Rauschenbach, Lecturer at the Institute of Social Sciences of the University of Lausanne and Research Associate at the Leuven Institute of Criminology, KU Leuven

Alette Smeulers, Professor of Criminal Law and Criminology of International Crimes at the University of Groningen

Chandra Lekha Sriram, Professor of International Law and International Relations, and Founder and Director of the Centre on Human Rights in Conflict, at the University of East London

Ugur Umit Ungor, Associate Professor at the Department of History at Utrecht University and Research Fellow at the Institute for War, Holocaust, and Genocide Studies in Amsterdam

Iva Vukusic, PhD Candidate in the History Department of Utrecht University

Maartje Weerdesteijn, Assistant Professor at VU University Amsterdam and Researcher at the Center for International Criminal Justice

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